Rang & Dale's Pharmacology 8th Revised edition [Minkštas viršelis]

  • Formatas: Paperback, 776 pages, aukštis x plotis: 276x216 mm, Approx. 346 illustrations (346 in full color)
  • Išleidimo metai: 21-Jan-2015
  • Leidėjas: Churchill Livingstone
  • ISBN-10: 0702053627
  • ISBN-13: 9780702053627
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
  • Formatas: Paperback, 776 pages, aukštis x plotis: 276x216 mm, Approx. 346 illustrations (346 in full color)
  • Išleidimo metai: 21-Jan-2015
  • Leidėjas: Churchill Livingstone
  • ISBN-10: 0702053627
  • ISBN-13: 9780702053627
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
For 25 years, Rang and Dales Pharmacology has delivered the core basic and clinical science information required by students and healthcare practitioners worldwide. Authors H. P. Rang, J. M. Ritter, R. J. Flower, and G. Henderson have ensured that the 8th Edition of this easy-to-read, comprehensive text continues the tradition of excellence with new coverage of drugs affecting the skin and new components online at Student Consult.Get the essential pharmacology information you need from one authoritative source with an outstanding global reputation for excellence. Progress confidently through all relevant aspects of pharmacology, beginning with a molecular understanding of receptors and drug actions through clinical uses of key groups of drugs. Find important content quickly thanks to a color-coded layout that enables easy navigation and cross-referencing. Master difficult concepts with Key Points boxes, Clinical Uses boxes, and full-color illustrations throughout. Stay up to date with new information in the field, including an all-new chapter on drugs that affect the skin. Take advantage of new and unique features online, including 500+ chapter-specific multiple choice questions for immediate self-assessment. eBook version included! For the first time, you can access the entire book online or offline across all devices with the Student Consult eBook! Build your basic and clinical pharmacology knowledge with a comprehensive yet easy-to-use text

Recenzijos

-This textbook nimbly covers a wide, complex subject without dumbing it down...It's easy to read (in bite sized chunks) and the liberal use of colour, and high quality paper, add a feel-good factor-. BMA Awards 2007, review of the previous edition "This textbook nimbly covers a wide, complex subject without dumbing it down...It's easy to read (in bite sized chunks) and the liberal use of colour, and high quality paper, add a feel-good factor." BMA Awards 2007, review of the previous edition "This textbook nimbly covers a wide, complex subject without dumbing it down...It's easy to read (in bite sized chunks) and the liberal use of colour, and high quality paper, add a feel-good factor." BMA Awards 2007, review of the previous edition

Preface xv
Acknowledgements xv
Section 1: General principles
1 What is pharmacology?
1(5)
Overview
1(1)
What is a drug?
1(1)
Origins and antecedents
1(1)
Pharmacology in the 20th and 21st centuries
2(4)
Alternative therapeutic principles
2(1)
The emergence of biotechnology
3(1)
Pharmacology today
3(3)
2 How drugs act: general principles
6(16)
Overview
6(1)
Introduction
6(1)
Protein targets for drug binding
6(11)
Drug receptors
6(1)
Drug specificity
7(1)
Receptor classification
8(1)
Drug—receptor interactions
8(2)
Competitive antagonism
10(2)
Partial agonists and the concept of efficacy
12(3)
Other forms of drug antagonism
15(2)
Desensitisation and tolerance
17(1)
Change in receptors
17(1)
Translocation of receptors
17(1)
Exhaustion of mediators
17(1)
Altered drug metabolism
18(1)
Physiological adaptation
18(1)
Quantitative aspects of drug—receptor interactions
18(2)
The binding reaction
18(1)
Binding when more than one drug is present
19(1)
The nature of drug effects
20(2)
3 How drugs act: molecular aspects
22(28)
Overview
22(1)
Targets for drug action
22(2)
Receptors
22(1)
Ion channels
22(1)
Enzymes
23(1)
Transporters
23(1)
Receptor proteins
24(21)
Cloning of receptors
24(1)
Types of receptor
24(1)
Molecular structure of receptors
25(1)
Type 1: Ligand-gated ion channels
26(1)
Type 2: G protein-coupled receptors
27(12)
Type 3: Kinase-linked and related receptors
39(3)
Type 4: Nuclear receptors
42(3)
Ion channels as drug targets
45(2)
Ion selectivity
45(1)
Gating
45(1)
Molecular architecture of ion channels
46(1)
Pharmacology of ion channels
47(1)
Control of receptor expression
47(1)
Receptors and disease
48(2)
4 How drugs act: cellular aspects — excitation, contraction and secretion
50(17)
Overview
50(1)
Regulation of intracellular calcium
50(4)
Calcium entry mechanisms
50(3)
Calcium extrusion mechanisms
53(1)
Calcium release mechanisms
53(1)
Calmodulin
53(1)
Excitation
54(6)
The 'resting' cell
55(1)
Electrical and ionic events underlying the action potential
55(1)
Channel function
56(4)
Muscle contraction
60(3)
Skeletal muscle
60(1)
Cardiac muscle
60(1)
Smooth muscle
61(2)
Release of chemical mediators
63(1)
Exocytosis
63(1)
Non-vesicular release mechanisms
64(1)
Epithelial ion transport
64(3)
5 Cell proliferation, apoptosis, repair and regeneration
67(11)
Overview
67(1)
Cell proliferation
67(3)
The cell cycle
67(2)
Interactions between cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix
69(1)
Angiogenesis
70(1)
Apoptosis and cell removal
71(2)
Morphological changes in apoptosis
71(1)
The major players in apoptosis
71(1)
Pathways to apoptosis
72(1)
Pathophysiological implications
73(2)
Repair and healing
74(1)
Hyperplasia
74(1)
The growth, invasion and metastasis of tumours
74(1)
Stem cells and regeneration
74(1)
Therapeutic prospects
75(3)
Apoptotic mechanisms
75(1)
Angiogenesis and metalloproteinases
75(1)
Cell cycle regulation
75(3)
6 Cellular mechanisms: host defence
78(13)
Overview
78(1)
Introduction
78(1)
The innate immune response
78(5)
Pattern recognition
78(5)
The adaptive immune response
83(5)
The induction phase
84(1)
The effector phase
85(3)
Systemic responses in inflammation
88(3)
The role of the nervous system in inflammation
88(1)
Unwanted inflammatory and immune responses
88(1)
The outcome of the inflammatory response
89(2)
7 Method and measurement in pharmacology
91(10)
Overview
91(1)
Bioassay
91(3)
Biological test systems
91(1)
General principles of bioassay
92(2)
Animal models of disease
94(2)
Genetic and transgenic animal models
95(1)
Pharmacological studies in humans
96(1)
Clinical trials
96(5)
Avoidance of bias
97(1)
The size of the sample
98(1)
Clinical outcome measures
98(1)
Placebos
99(1)
Meta-analysis
99(1)
Balancing benefit and risk
99(2)
8 Absorption and distribution of drugs
101(15)
Overview
101(1)
Introduction
101(1)
Physical processes underlying drug disposition
101(7)
The movement of drug molecules across cell barriers
101(5)
Binding of drugs to plasma proteins
106(1)
Partition into body fat and other tissues
107(1)
Drug absorption and routes of administration
108(4)
Oral administration
109(1)
Sublingual administration
110(1)
Rectal administration
110(1)
Application to epithelial surfaces
110(2)
Distribution of drugs in the body
112(2)
Body fluid compartments
112(1)
Volume of distribution
113(1)
Special drug delivery systems
114(2)
9 Drug metabolism and elimination
116(9)
Overview
116(1)
Introduction
116(1)
Drug metabolism
116(6)
Phase 1 reactions
116(2)
Phase 2 reactions
118(1)
Stereoselectivity
118(1)
Inhibition of P450
118(1)
Induction of microsomal enzymes
119(1)
First-pass (presystemic [ 'first-pass'] metabolism)
119(1)
Pharmacologically active drug metabolites
119(1)
Drug interactions due to enzyme induction or inhibition
120(2)
Drug and metabolite excretion
122(3)
Biliary excretion and enterohepatic circulation
122(1)
Renal excretion of drugs and metabolites
122(1)
Drug interactions due to altered drug excretion
123(2)
10 Pharmacokinetics
125(8)
Overview
125(1)
Introduction: definition and uses of pharmacokinetics
125(1)
Uses of pharmacokinetics
125(1)
Scope of this chapter
126(1)
Drug elimination expressed as clearance
126(1)
Single-compartment model
127(1)
Effect of repeated dosing
127(1)
Effect of variation in rate of absorption
128(1)
More complicated kinetic models
128(3)
Two-compartment model
129(1)
Saturation kinetics
130(1)
Population pharmacokinetics
131(1)
Limitations of pharmacokinetics
131(2)
11 Individual variation, pharmacogenomics and personalised medicine
133(10)
Overview
133(1)
Introduction
133(1)
Epidemiological factors and inter-individual variation of drug response
134(3)
Ethnicity
134(1)
Age
134(1)
Pregnancy
135(1)
Disease
136(1)
Drug interactions
136(1)
Genetic variation in drug responsiveness
137(2)
Relevant elementary genetics
137(1)
Single-gene pharmacokinetic disorders
138(1)
Therapeutic drugs and clinically available pharmacogenomic tests
139(2)
HLA gene tests
140(1)
Drug metabolism-related gene tests
140(1)
Drug target-related gene tests
141(1)
Combined (metabolism and target) gene tests
141(1)
Conclusions
141(2)
Section 2: Chemical mediators
12 Chemical mediators and the autonomic nervous system
143(12)
Overview
143(1)
Historical aspects
143(1)
The autonomic nervous system
144(3)
Basic anatomy and physiology
144(1)
Transmitters in the autonomic nervous system
145(2)
Some general principles of chemical transmission
147(6)
Dale's principle
147(1)
Denervation supersensitivity
147(1)
Presynaptic modulation
148(1)
Postsynaptic modulation
149(1)
Transmitters other than acetylcholine and noradrenaline
149(1)
Co-transmission
149(2)
Termination of transmitter action
151(2)
Basic steps in neurochemical transmission: sites of drug action
153(2)
13 Cholinergic transmission
155(22)
Overview
155(1)
Muscarinic and nicotinic actions of acetylcholine
155(1)
Acetylcholine receptors
155(3)
Nicotinic receptors
155(2)
Muscarinic receptors
157(1)
Physiology of cholinergic transmission
158(3)
Acetylcholine synthesis and release
158(2)
Electrical events in transmission at fast cholinergic synapses
160(1)
Effects of drugs on cholinergic transmission
161(16)
Drugs affecting muscarinic receptors
161(4)
Drugs affecting autonomic ganglia
165(5)
Drugs that act presynaptically
170(1)
Drugs that enhance cholinergic transmission
171(5)
Other drugs that enhance cholinergic transmission
176(1)
14 Noradrenergic transmission
177(20)
Overview
177(1)
Catecholamines
177(1)
Classification of adrenoceptors
177(1)
Physiology of noradrenergic transmission
178(4)
The noradrenergic neuron
178(3)
Uptake and degradation of catecholamines
181(1)
Drugs acting on noradrenergic transmission
182(15)
Drugs acting on adrenoceptors
182(10)
Drugs that affect noradrenergic neurons
192(5)
15 5-Hydroxytryptamine and the pharmacology of migraine
197(10)
Overview
197(1)
5-Hydroxytryptamine
197(6)
Distribution, biosynthesis and degradation
197(1)
Pharmacological effects
197(4)
Drugs acting at 5-HT receptors
201(2)
Migraine and other clinical conditions in which 5-HT plays a role
203(4)
Migraine and antimigraine drugs
203(2)
Carcinoid syndrome
205(1)
Pulmonary hypertension
206(1)
16 Purines
207(5)
Overview
207(1)
Introduction
207(1)
Purinergic receptors
207(1)
Adenosine as a mediator
207(3)
Adenosine and the cardiovascular system
209(1)
Adenosine and asthma
209(1)
Adenosine in the CNS
210(1)
ADP as a mediator
210(1)
ADP and platelets
210(1)
ATP as a mediator
210(1)
ATP as a neurotransmitter
210(1)
ATP in nociception
210(1)
ATP in inflammation
210(1)
Future prospects
211(1)
17 Local hormones 1: histamine and the biologically active lipids
212(10)
Overview
212(1)
Introduction
212(1)
What is a 'mediator'?
212(1)
Histamine
212(2)
Synthesis and storage of histamine
212(1)
Histamine release
213(1)
Histamine receptors
213(1)
Actions
213(1)
Eicosanoids
214(4)
General remarks
214(1)
Structure and biosynthesis
214(1)
Prostanoids
214(4)
Leukotrienes
218(2)
Leukotrienes receptors
219(1)
Leukotrienes actions
219(1)
Lipoxins and resolvins
220(1)
Platelet-activating factor
220(1)
Biosynthesis
220(1)
Actions and role in inflammation
220(1)
Concluding remarks
220(2)
18 Local hormones 2: peptides and proteins
222(9)
Overview
222(1)
Introduction
222(1)
General principles of protein and peptide pharmacology
222(1)
Structure
222(1)
Types of protein and peptide mediator
222(1)
Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides
223(1)
Peptide precursors
223(1)
Diversity within peptide families
224(1)
Peptide trafficking and secretion
224(1)
Bradykinin
224(2)
Source and formation of bradykinin
224(1)
Metabolism and inactivation of bradykinin
225(1)
Bradykinin receptors
225(1)
Actions and role in inflammation
225(1)
Neuropeptides
226(1)
Cytokines
226(3)
Interleukins and related compounds
228(1)
Chemokines
228(1)
Interferons
228(1)
The 'cytokine storm'
228(1)
Proteins and peptides that downregulate inflammation
229(1)
Concluding remarks
229(2)
19 Cannabinoids
231(6)
Overview
231(1)
Plant-derived cannabinoids and their pharmacological effects
231(1)
Pharmacological effects
231(1)
Pharmacokinetic and analytical aspects
231(1)
Adverse effects
231(1)
Tolerance and dependence
232(1)
Cannabinoid receptors
232(1)
Endocannabinoids
233(2)
Biosynthesis of endocannabinoids
233(1)
Termination of the endocannabinoid signal
234(1)
Physiological mechanisms
235(1)
Pathological involvement
235(1)
Synthetic cannabinoids
235(1)
Clinical applications
235(2)
20 Nitric oxide and related mediators
237(10)
Overview
237(1)
Introduction
237(1)
Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its control
237(2)
Degradation and carriage of nitric oxide
239(1)
Effects of nitric oxide
240(2)
Biochemical and cellular aspects
240(1)
Vascular effects
241(1)
Neuronal effects
241(1)
Host defence
241(1)
Therapeutic aspects
242(1)
Nitric oxide
242(1)
Nitric oxide donors/precursors
242(1)
Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis
242(1)
Nitric oxide replacement or potentiation
243(1)
Clinical conditions in which nitric oxide may play a part
243(1)
Related mediators
244(3)
Section 3: Drugs affecting major organ systems
21 The heart
247(18)
Overview
247(1)
Introduction
247(1)
Physiology of cardiac function
247(5)
Cardiac rate and rhythm
247(3)
Cardiac contraction
250(1)
Myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow
251(1)
Autonomic control of the heart
252(2)
Sympathetic system
252(1)
Parasympathetic system
253(1)
Cardiac natriuretic peptides
254(1)
Ischaemic heart disease
254(1)
Angina
254(1)
Myocardial infarction
255(1)
Drugs that affect cardiac function
255(10)
Antidysrhythmic drugs
255(4)
Drugs that increase myocardial contraction
259(1)
Antianginal drugs
260(5)
22 The vascular system
265(20)
Overview
265(1)
Introduction
265(1)
Vascular structure and function
265(1)
Control of vascular smooth muscle tone
266(5)
The vascular endothelium
266(3)
The renin—angiotensin system
269(2)
Vasoactive drugs
271(5)
Vasoconstrictor drugs
271(1)
Vasodilator drugs
272(4)
Clinical uses of vasoactive drugs
276(9)
Systemic hypertension
276(3)
Heart failure
279(1)
Shock and hypotensive states
280(2)
Peripheral vascular disease
282(1)
Raynaud's disease
282(1)
Pulmonary hypertension
282(3)
23 Atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism
285(8)
Overview
285(1)
Introduction
285(1)
Atherogenesis
285(1)
Lipoprotein transport
286(2)
Dyslipidaemia
286(2)
Prevention of atheromatous disease
288(1)
Lipid-lowering drugs
289(4)
Statins: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
289(1)
Fibrates
290(1)
Drugs that inhibit cholesterol absorption
290(1)
Nicotinic acid
291(1)
Fish oil derivatives
291(2)
24 Haemostasis and thrombosis
293(15)
Overview
293(1)
Introduction
293(1)
Blood coagulation
293(3)
Coagulation cascade
293(2)
Vascular endothelium in haemostasis and thrombosis
295(1)
Drugs that act on the coagulation cascade
296(5)
Coagulation defects
296(1)
Thrombosis
297(4)
Platelet adhesion and activation
301(3)
Antiplatelet drugs
302(2)
Fibrinolysis (thrombolysis)
304(4)
Fibrinolytic drugs
304(3)
Antifibrinolytic and haemostatic drugs
307(1)
25 Haemopoietic system and treatment of anaemia
308(9)
Overview
308(1)
Introduction
308(1)
The haemopoietic system
308(1)
Types of anaemia
308(1)
Haematinic agents
309(3)
Iron
309(2)
Folic acid and vitamin Bit
311(1)
Haemopoietic growth factors
312(3)
Erythropoietin
313(2)
Haemolytic anaemia
315(2)
Drugs used to treat haemolytic anaemias
315(2)
26 Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drugs
317(18)
Overview
317(1)
Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors
317(8)
Mechanism of action
318(2)
Pharmacological actions
320(1)
Therapeutic actions
320(2)
Some important NSAIDs and coxibs
322(3)
Antirheumatoid drugs
325(4)
Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs
326(1)
Immunosuppressant drugs
327(2)
Anticytokine drugs and other biopharmaceuticals
329(1)
Drugs used in gout
330(1)
Antagonists of histamine
331(2)
Possible future developments
333(2)
27 Skin
335(9)
Overview
335(1)
Introduction
335(1)
Structure of skin
335(2)
Common diseases of the skin
337(2)
Acne
337(1)
Rosacea
338(1)
Baldness and hirsutism
338(1)
Eczema
338(1)
Pruritus
338(1)
Urticaria
338(1)
Psoriasis
338(1)
Warts
339(1)
Other infections
339(1)
Drugs acting on skin
339(1)
Formulation
339(1)
Principal drugs used in skin disorders
339(3)
Antimicrobial agents
339(1)
Glucocorticoids and other anti-inflammatory agents
340(1)
Drugs used to control hair growth
340(1)
Retinoids
341(1)
Vitamin D analogues
341(1)
Agents acting by other mechanisms
342(1)
Concluding remarks
342(2)
28 Respiratory system
344(11)
Overview
344(1)
The physiology of respiration
344(1)
Control of breathing
344(1)
Regulation of musculature, blood vessels and glands of the airways
344(1)
Pulmonary disease and its treatment
345(10)
Bronchial asthma
345(3)
Drugs used to treat and prevent asthma
348(3)
Severe acute asthma (status asthmaticus)
351(1)
Allergic emergencies
352(1)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
352(1)
Surfactants
353(1)
Cough
353(2)
29 The kidney and urinary system
355(12)
Overview
355(1)
Introduction
355(1)
Outline of renal function
355(1)
The structure and function of the nephron
355(6)
Tubular function
356(4)
Acid—base balance
360(1)
Potassium balance
360(1)
Excretion of organic molecules
360(1)
Natriuretic peptides
361(1)
Prostaglandins and renal function
361(1)
Drugs acting on the kidney
361(4)
Diuretics
361(4)
Drugs that alter the pH of the urine
365(1)
Drugs that alter the excretion of organic molecules
365(1)
Drugs used in renal failure
365(1)
Hyperphosphataemia
365(1)
Hyperkalaemia
366(1)
Drugs used in urinary tract disorders
366(1)
30 The gastrointestinal tract
367(13)
Overview
367(1)
The innervation and hormones of the gastrointestinal tract
367(1)
Neuronal control
367(1)
Hormonal control
367(1)
Gastric secretion
367(5)
The regulation of acid secretion by parietal cells
367(1)
The coordination of factors regulating acid secretion
368
Drugs used to inhibit or neutralise gastric acid secretion
339(32)
Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection
371(1)
Drugs that protect the mucosa
372(1)
Vomiting
372(3)
The reflex mechanism of vomiting
372(1)
Antiemetic drugs
373(2)
The motility of the gastrointestinal tract
375(3)
Purgatives
376(1)
Drugs that increase gastrointestinal motility
376(1)
Antidiarrhoeal agents
376(2)
Drugs for chronic bowel disease
378(1)
Drugs affecting the biliary system
378(1)
Future directions
378(2)
31 The control of blood glucose and drug treatment of diabetes mellitus
380(13)
Overview
380(1)
Introduction
380(1)
Control of blood glucose
380(1)
Pancreatic islet hormones
380(5)
Insulin
380(4)
Glucagon
384(1)
Somatostatin
384(1)
Amylin (islet amyloid polypeptide)
385(1)
Incretins
385(1)
Diabetes mellitus
385(8)
Treatment of diabetes mellitus
386(5)
Potential new antidiabetic drugs
391(2)
32 Obesity
393(9)
Overview
393(1)
Introduction
393(1)
Definition of obesity
393(1)
Obesity as a health problem
393(1)
Homeostatic mechanisms controlling energy balance
394(3)
The role of gut and other hormones in body weight regulation
394(1)
Neurological circuits that control body weight and eating behaviour
394(3)
The pathophysiology of human obesity
397(2)
Food intake and obesity
397(1)
Physical exercise and obesity
398(1)
Obesity as a disorder of the homeostatic control of energy balance
398(1)
Genetic factors and obesity
398(1)
Pharmacological approaches to the problem of obesity
399(1)
Centrally acting appetite suppressants
399(1)
Orlistat
399(1)
New approaches to obesity therapy
400(2)
33 The pituitary and the adrenal cortex
402(16)
Overview
402(1)
The pituitary gland
402(6)
The anterior pituitary gland
402(1)
Hypothalamic hormones
402(1)
Anterior pituitary hormones
403(4)
Posterior pituitary gland
407(1)
The adrenal cortex
408(7)
Glucocorticoids
409(5)
Mineralocorticoids
414(1)
New directions in glucocorticoid therapy
415(3)
34 The thyroid
418(7)
Overview
418(1)
Synthesis, storage and secretion of thyroid hormones
418(1)
Uptake of plasma iodide by the follicle cells
418(1)
Oxidation of iodide and iodination of tyrosine residues
418(1)
Secretion of thyroid hormone
418(1)
Regulation of thyroid function
418(2)
Actions of the thyroid hormones
420(1)
Effects on metabolism
420(1)
Effects on growth and development
420(1)
Mechanism of action
420(1)
Transport and metabolism of thyroid hormones
420(1)
Abnormalities of thyroid function
421(1)
Hyperthyroidism Ithyrotoxicosisl
421(1)
Simple, non-toxic goitre
421(1)
Hypothyroidism
421(1)
Drugs used in diseases of the thyroid
421(4)
Hyperthyroidism
421(2)
Hypothyroidism
423(2)
35 The reproductive system
425(14)
Overview
425(1)
Introduction
425(1)
Endocrine control of reproduction
425(3)
Neurohormonal control of the female reproductive system
425(1)
Neurohormonal control of the male reproductive system
426(1)
Behavioural effects of sex hormones
427(1)
Drugs affecting reproductive function
428(5)
Oestrogens
428(1)
Antioestrogens
429(1)
Progestogens
429(1)
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy
430(1)
Androgens
430(1)
Anabolic steroids
431(1)
Antiandrogens
431(1)
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: agonists and antagonists
432(1)
Gonadotrophins and analogues
432(1)
Drugs used for contraception
433(2)
Oral contraceptives
433(1)
Other drug regimens used for contraception
434(1)
The uterus
435(1)
The motility of the uterus
435(1)
Drugs that stimulate the uterus
435(1)
Drugs that inhibit uterine contraction
436(1)
Erectile dysfunction
436(3)
36 Bone metabolism
439(10)
Overview
439(1)
Introduction
439(1)
Bone structure and composition
439(1)
Bone remodelling
439(5)
The action of cells and cytokines
439(2)
The turnover of bone minerals
441(1)
Hormones involved in bone metabolism and remodelling
441(3)
Disorders of bone
444(1)
Drugs used in bone disorders
444(3)
Bisphosphonates
444(1)
Oestrogens and related compounds
445(1)
Parathyroid hormone and teriparatide
446(1)
Strontium
446(1)
Vitamin D preparations
446(1)
Biologicals
447(1)
Calcitonin
447(1)
Calcium salts
447(1)
Calcimimetic compounds
447(1)
Potential new therapies
447(2)
Section 4: Nervous system
37 Chemical transmission and drug action in the central nervous system
449(5)
Overview
449(1)
Introduction
449(1)
Chemical signalling in the nervous system
449(1)
Targets for drug action
450(1)
Drug action in the central nervous system
451(1)
Blood—brain barrier
452(1)
The classification of psychotropic drugs
452(2)
38 Amino acid transmitters
454(13)
Overview
454(1)
Excitatory amino acids
454(1)
Excitatory amino acids as CNS transmitters
454(1)
Metabolism and release of excitatory amino acids
454(1)
Glutamate
455(7)
Glutamate receptor subtypes
455(3)
Synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation
458(1)
Drugs acting on glutamate receptors
459(3)
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)
462(3)
Synthesis, storage and function
462(1)
GABA receptors: structure and pharmacology
462(1)
Drugs acting on GABA receptors
463(2)
Glycine
465(1)
Concluding remarks
465(2)
39 Other transmitters and modulators
467(15)
Overview
467(1)
Introduction
467(1)
Noradrenaline
467(1)
Noradrenergic pathways in the CNS
467(1)
Functional aspects
467(1)
Dopamine
468(4)
Dopaminergic pathways in the CNS
469(1)
Dopamine receptors
470(1)
Functional aspects
471(1)
5-Hydroxytryptamine
472(2)
5-HT pathways in the CNS
473(1)
5-HT receptors in the CNS
473(1)
Functional aspects
473(1)
Clinically used drugs
474(1)
Acetylcholine
474(2)
Cholinergic pathways in the CNS
474(1)
Acetylcholine receptors
475(1)
Functional aspects
476(1)
Purines
476(1)
Histamine
477(1)
Other CNS mediators
477(2)
Melatonin
477(1)
Nitric oxide
478(1)
Lipid mediators
478(1)
A final message
479(3)
40 Neurodegenerative diseases
482(16)
Overview
482(1)
Protein misfolding and aggregation in chronic neurodegenerative diseases
482(1)
Mechanisms of neuronal death
482(4)
Excitotoxicity
484(1)
Apoptosis
484(1)
Oxidative stress
485(1)
Ischaemic brain damage
486(1)
Pathophysiology
486(1)
Therapeutic approaches
487(1)
Alzheimer's disease
487(4)
Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
487(2)
Therapeutic approaches
489(2)
Parkinson's disease
491(5)
Features of Parkinson's disease
491(1)
Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
492(1)
Drug treatment of Parkinson's disease
493(3)
Huntington's disease
496(1)
Neurodegenerative prion diseases
496(2)
41 General anaesthetic agents
498(11)
Overview
498(1)
Introduction
498(1)
Mechanism of action of anaesthetic drugs
498(3)
Lipid solubility
498(1)
Effects on ion channels
499(1)
Effects on the nervous system
500(1)
Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
500(1)
Intravenous anaesthetic agents
501(2)
Propofol
501(1)
Thiopental
501(1)
Etomidate
502(1)
Other intravenous agents
502(1)
Inhalation anaesthetics
503(3)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
503(3)
Individual inhalation anaesthetics
506(1)
Isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane and halothane
506(1)
Nitrous oxide
507(1)
Balanced anaesthesia
507(2)
42 Analgesic drugs
509(21)
Overview
509(1)
Neural mechanisms of pain
509(6)
Nociceptive afferent neurons
509(1)
Modulation in the nociceptive pathway
510(1)
Neuropathic pain
511(1)
Chemical signalling in the nociceptive pathway
512(3)
Analgesic drugs
515(14)
Opioid drugs
515(11)
Paracetamol
526(1)
Treatment of neuropathic pain
527(1)
Other pain-relieving drugs
528(1)
New approaches
529(1)
43 Local anaesthetics and other drugs affecting sodium channels
530(6)
Overview
530(1)
Local anaesthetics
530(4)
Chemical aspects
530(1)
Mechanism of action
530(3)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
533(1)
New approaches
533(1)
Other drugs that affect sodium channels
534(2)
Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin
534(1)
Agents that affect sodium channel gating
535(1)
44 Anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs
536(10)
Overview
536(1)
The nature of anxiety and its treatment
536(1)
Measurement of anxiolytic activity
536(2)
Animal models of anxiety
536(1)
Tests on humans
537(1)
Drugs used to treat anxiety
538(6)
Benzodiazepines and related drugs
538(5)
Buspirone
543(1)
Other potential anxiolytic drugs
543(1)
Drugs used to treat insomnia (hypnotic drugs)
544(2)
45 Antiepileptic drugs
546(13)
Overview
546(1)
Introduction
546(1)
The nature of epilepsy
546(3)
Types of epilepsy
546(2)
Neural mechanisms and animal models of epilepsy
548(1)
Antiepileptic drugs
549(8)
Carbamazepine
552(1)
Phenytoin
553(1)
Valproate
554(1)
Ethosuximide
554(1)
Phenobarbital
554(1)
Benzodiazepines
555(1)
Newer antiepileptic drugs
555(1)
Development of new drugs
556(1)
Other uses of antiepileptic drugs
557(1)
Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy
557(1)
Muscle spasm and muscle relaxants
557(2)
46 Antipsychotic drugs
559(11)
Overview
559(1)
Introduction
559(1)
The nature of schizophrenia
559(3)
Aetiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia
560(2)
Antipsychotic drugs
562(6)
Classification of antipsychotic drugs
562(1)
Clinical efficacy
562(3)
Pharmacological properties
565(1)
Unwanted effects
566(1)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
567(1)
Future developments
568(2)
47 Antidepressant drugs
570(19)
Overview
570(1)
The nature of depression
570(1)
Theories of depression
570(2)
The monoamine theory
570(1)
Neuroendocrine mechanisms
571(1)
Trophic effects and neuroplasticity
571(1)
Antidepressant drugs
572(13)
Types of antidepressant drug
572(1)
Testing of antidepressant drugs
573(4)
Mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs
577(1)
Monoamine uptake inhibitors
577(5)
Monoamine receptor antagonists
582(1)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
582(2)
Melatonin agonist
584(1)
Miscellaneous agents
584(1)
Future antidepressant drugs
584(1)
Brain stimulation therapies
585(1)
Clinical effectiveness of antidepressant treatments
585(1)
Other clinical uses of antidepressant drugs
586(1)
Drug treatment of bipolar disorder
586(3)
Lithium
586(1)
Antiepileptic drugs
587(1)
Atypical antipsychotic drugs
587(2)
48 NS stimulants and psychotomimetic drugs
589(9)
Overview
589(1)
Psychomotor stimulants
589(6)
Amphetamines
589(2)
Methylphenidate
591(1)
Modafinil
591(1)
Cocaine
592(1)
Methylxanthines
593(1)
Cathinones
594(1)
Other stimulants
594(1)
Cognition-enhancing drugs
594(1)
Psychotomimetic drugs
595(3)
LSD, psilocybin and mescaline
595(1)
MDMA (ecstasy)
596(1)
Ketamine and phencyclidine
596(1)
Other psychotomimetic drugs
597(1)
49 Drug addiction, dependence and abuse
598(17)
Overview
598(1)
Drug use and abuse
598(5)
Drug administration
598(2)
Drug harm
600(1)
Drug dependence
600(1)
Tolerance
601(2)
Pharmacological approaches to treating drug addiction
603(1)
Nicotine and tobacco
603(5)
Pharmacological effects of smoking
603(2)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
605(1)
Tolerance and dependence
605(1)
Harmful effects of smoking
606(1)
Pharmacological approaches to treating nicotine dependence
607(1)
Ethanol
608(7)
Pharmacological effects of ethanol
608(3)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
611(1)
Tolerance and dependence
612(1)
Pharmacological approaches to treating alcohol dependence
613(2)
Section 5: Drugs used for the treatment of infections and cancer
50 Basic principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy
615(11)
Overview
615(1)
Background
615(1)
The molecular basis of chemotherapy
615(6)
Biochemical reactions as potential targets
616(4)
The formed structures of the cell as potential targets
620(1)
Resistance to antibacterial drugs
621(5)
Genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance
622(1)
Biochemical mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics
623(1)
Current status of antibiotic resistance in bacteria
624(2)
51 Antibacterial drugs
626(16)
Overview
626(1)
Introduction
626(1)
Antimicrobial agents that interfere with folate synthesis or action
626(4)
Sulfonamides
626(3)
Trimethoprim
629(1)
β-Lactam antibiotics
630(2)
Penicillins
630(1)
Cephalosporins and cephamycins
631(1)
Other β-lactam antibiotics
632(1)
Glycopeptides
632(1)
Antimicrobial agents affecting bacterial protein synthesis
632(3)
Tetracyclines
632(2)
Chloramphenicol
634(1)
Aminoglycosides
634(1)
Macrolides
635(1)
Antimicrobial agents affecting topoisomerase
635(2)
Quinolones
635(2)
Miscellaneous and less common antibacterial agents
637(1)
Antimycobacterial agents
638(2)
Drugs used to treat tuberculosis
638(1)
Drugs used to treat leprosy
639(1)
Possible new antibacterial drugs
640(2)
52 Antiviral drugs
642(11)
Overview
642(1)
Background information about viruses
642(1)
An outline of virus structure
642(1)
Examples of pathogenic viruses
642(1)
Virus function and life history
642(1)
The host—virus interaction
643(1)
Host defences against viruses
643(1)
Viral ploys to circumvent host defences
644(1)
HIV and AIDS
644(1)
Antiviral drugs
645(5)
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
645(2)
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
647(1)
Protease inhibitors
647(1)
DNA polymerase inhibitors
648(1)
Neuraminidase inhibitors and inhibitors of viral coat disassembly
649(1)
Drugs acting through other mechanisms
649(1)
Biopharmaceutical antiviral drugs
650(1)
Other agents
650(1)
Combination therapy for HIV
650(1)
Prospects for new antiviral drugs
651(2)
53 Antifungal drugs
653(5)
Overview
653(1)
Fungi and fungal infections
653(1)
Drugs used to treat fungal infections
654(3)
Antifungal antibiotics
654(1)
Synthetic antifungal drugs
655(2)
Future developments
657(1)
54 Antiprotozoal drugs
658(13)
Overview
658(1)
Host—parasite interactions
658(1)
Malaria and antimalarial drugs
658(8)
The life cycle of the malaria parasite
659(2)
Antimalarial drugs
661(5)
Potential new antimalarial drugs
666(1)
Amoebiasis and amoebicidal drugs
666(1)
Trypanosomiasis and trypanocidal drugs
667(1)
Other protozoal infections and drugs used to treat them
668(1)
Leishmaniasis
668(1)
Trichomoniasis
668(1)
Giardiasis
669(1)
Toxoplasmosis
669(1)
Pneumocystis
669(1)
Future developments
669(2)
55 Anthelmintic drugs
671(5)
Overview
671(1)
Helminth infections
671(1)
Anthelmintic drugs
672(2)
Resistance to anthelmintic drugs
674(1)
Vaccines and other novel approaches
675(1)
56 Anticancer drugs
676(16)
Overview
676(1)
Introduction
676(1)
The pathogenesis of cancer
676(3)
The genesis of a cancer cell
676(1)
The special characteristics of cancer cells
677(2)
General principles of cytotoxic anticancer drugs
679(1)
Anticancer drugs
679(10)
Alkylating agents and related compounds
680(3)
Antimetabolites
683(2)
Cytotoxic antibiotics
685(1)
Plant derivatives
685(1)
Hormones
686(1)
Hormone antagonists
686(1)
Monoclonal antibodies
687(1)
Protein kinase inhibitors
687(1)
Miscellaneous agents
688(1)
Resistance to anticancer drugs
689(1)
Combination therapies
689(1)
Control of emesis and myelosuppression
689(1)
Future developments
690(2)
Section 6: Special topics
57 Harmful effects of drugs
692(11)
Overview
692(1)
Introduction
692(1)
Classification of adverse drug reactions
692(1)
Adverse effects related to the known pharmacological action of the drug
692(1)
Adverse effects unrelated to the known pharmacological action of the drug
693(1)
Drug toxicity
693(7)
Toxicity testing
693(1)
General mechanisms of toxin-induced cell damage and cell death
693(3)
Mutagenesis and assessment of genotoxic potential
696(4)
Immunological reactions to drugs
700(3)
Immunological mechanisms
700(1)
Clinical types of allergic response to drugs
700(3)
58 Lifestyle drugs and drugs in sport
703(5)
Overview
703(1)
What are lifestyle drugs?
703(1)
Classification of lifestyle drugs
703(1)
Drugs in sport
703(3)
Anabolic steroids
705(1)
Human growth hormone
706(1)
Stimulant drugs
706(1)
Conclusion
706(2)
59 Biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy
708(10)
Overview
708(1)
Introduction
708(1)
Biopharmaceuticals
708(3)
Proteins and polypeptides
709(1)
Monoclonal antibodies
710(1)
Gene therapy
711(3)
Gene delivery
711(2)
Controlling gene expression
713(1)
Safety and societal issues
714(1)
Therapeutic applications
714(4)
Gene therapy for cancer
714(1)
Single-gene defects
715(1)
Gene therapy and infectious disease
716(1)
Gene therapy and cardiovascular disease
716(1)
Oligonucleotideapproaches
716(2)
60 Drug discovery and development
718(5)
Overview
718(1)
The stages of a project
718(3)
The drug discovery phase
718(2)
Preclinical development
720(1)
Clinical development
720(1)
Biopharmaceuticals
721(1)
Commercial aspects
721(1)
Future prospects
721(1)
A final word
722(1)
Appendix 723(1)
Index 724