Contents List of Figures List of Tables Preface Acknowledgements
Chapter 1: Introducing Eye-Tracking 1.1. Online methodologies in language processing research 1.1.1 Think-aloud protocols 1.1.2 Self-paced reading 1.1.3 Eye-tracking 1.1.4 Event-related potentials 1.1.5 Synthesis 1.2 Why study eye movements? 1.3 Summary
Chapter 2: What Do I Need To Know About Eye Movements? 2.1 The observer and the visual field 2.2 Types of eye movements 2.3 The perceptual span 2.4 Where the eyes move 2.5 When the eyes move 2.6 How tight is the eye-mind link? A look at two models of eye-movement control 2.7 Conclusion
Chapter 3: What Topics Can Be Studied Using Text-Based Eye Tracking? A Synthetic Review 3.1 Finding a research topic 3.2 Research strands within text-based eye tracking 3.2.1 Grammar 3.2.2 Vocabulary and the bilingual lexicon 3.2.3 Instructed second language acquisition 3.2.4 Subtitles 3.2.5 Assessment 3.3 Conclusion
Chapter 4: What Topics Can Be Studied Using The Visual World Paradigm? A Synthetic Review 4.1 Foundations of the visual world paradigm 4.2 Research strands within visual world eye tracking 4.2.1 Word recognition 4.2.2 Prediction 22.214.171.124 What is prediction? 126.96.36.199 Semantic prediction 188.8.131.52 Morphosyntactic prediction 184.108.40.206 Prediction using multiple cues 220.127.116.11 Effects of instruction 4.2.3 Referential processing 4.2.4 Production 4.3 Conclusion
Chapter 5: General Principles of Experimental Design 5.1 Doublets, triplets, and quadruplets 5.2 Between- and within-subjects designs 5.3 Trials: practice trials, critical trials, and filler trials 5.4 Primary tasks and secondary tasks 5.5 How many items do I need? 5.6 Conclusion
Chapter 6: Designing an Eye-Tracking Study 6.1 Defining areas of interest 6.1.1 Word-based interest areas 6.1.2 Larger areas of text 6.1.3 Image-based interest areas 18.104.22.168 Images in text-based research 22.214.171.124 Images in the visual world paradigm 6.1.4 Setting interest areas in your own research 6.2 Guidelines for text-based eye-tracking research 6.2.1 Spatial constraints 6.2.2 Artistic factors 6.2.3 Linguistic constraints 6.3 Visual world research 6.3.1 Selecting Images 126.96.36.199 Experimental design 188.8.131.52 Visual properties of images 184.108.40.206 Naming consistency and normed databases 220.127.116.11 Should I have a preview? 18.104.22.168 Should my experiment have a fixation cross? 6.3.2 Preparing audio materials 22.214.171.124 Creating audio materials 126.96.36.199 Defining time periods 6.4 Conclusion
Chapter 7: Eye-Tracking Measures 7.1 Eye-tracking measures in text-based and visual world research 7.2 Eye-movement measures 7.2.1 Fixations and Skips 188.8.131.52 Counts, probabilities and proportions 184.108.40.206 Fixation duration 220.127.116.11.1 Early versus late eye-movement measures 18.104.22.168.2 Overview of durational measures 22.214.171.124.2.1 Early measures 126.96.36.199.2.2 Late measures 188.8.131.52 Fixation latency 184.108.40.206 Fixation location 7.2.2 Regressions 7.2.3 Integrated eye-tracking measures 220.127.116.11 Heatmaps, luminance maps, and gaze plots 18.104.22.168 Scanpaths 7.3 Conclusion: What measures should I use?
Chapter 8: Data Cleaning and Analysis 8.1 Data cleaning 8.1.1 Data cleaning software 8.1.2 Inspecting individual participant records and trials 8.1.3 Correcting for drift 8.2 Dealing with outliers 8.2.1 Dealing with overly short and long fixations 8.2.2 Data transformation 8.2.3 Accounting for outliers: Model criticism or aggressive a-priori screening? 8.3 Overview of statistical practices in current eye-tracking research 8.4 Linear Mixed-Effects Models 8.4.1 What's wrong with repeated-measures ANOVA? 8.4.2 Introducing linear mixed-effects models 8.4.3 Data-driven versus top-down approaches to selecting a random effects structure 8.4.4 Worked example 8.4.5 Reporting the results 8.5 Analyzing time course data 8.5.1 Analyzing separate time windows 8.5.2 Growth curve analysis 22.214.171.124 Data preprocessing 126.96.36.199 Data visualization 188.8.131.52 Logistic or quasi-logistic regression 184.108.40.206 Choosing time terms 220.127.116.11 Worked example 18.104.22.168 Reporting the results 8.6 Synthesis: Which analysis should I use?
Chapter 9: Setting Up An Eye-Tracking Lab 9.1 Choosing an eye tracker 9.1.1 Types of eye trackers and their precursors 9.1.2 Video-based eye trackers 9.1.3 How does an eye-tracker work? Speed, accuracy, and precision 9.2 The eye-tracking lab 9.2.1 Practical considerations 9.2.2 Spatial and technical requirements for a lab 9.2.3 Managing an eye tracking lab 9.3 Getting started 9.3.1 Ideas for research 9.3.2 Tips for beginners 22.214.171.124 About the equipment 126.96.36.199 About data collection 188.8.131.52.1 Organizing the data collection and logistics 184.108.40.206.2 Camera set-up and calibration 220.127.116.11 About data analysis References Index
Aline Godfroid is an Associate Professor in Second Language Studies and TESOL at Michigan State University. Her primary research interests are in psycholinguistics, vocabulary, quantitative research methods, and eye-tracking methodology. Her research is situated at the intersection of cognitive psychology and second language acquisition and has appeared in numerous international, peer-reviewed journals. Aline Godfroid is Co-Director of the Second Language Studies Eye-Tracking Lab and the recipient of the 2019 TESOL Award for Distinguished Research.