Applied Communication Research Methods: Getting Started as a Researcher 2nd New edition [Minkštas viršelis]

(West Chester University, USA), (The Pennsylvania State University, USA)
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 460 pages, aukštis x plotis: 254x203 mm, weight: 1048 g, 24 Line drawings, black and white; 23 Tables, black and white; 24 Illustrations, black and white
  • Išleidimo metai: 02-Dec-2019
  • Leidėjas: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 0367178729
  • ISBN-13: 9780367178727
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 460 pages, aukštis x plotis: 254x203 mm, weight: 1048 g, 24 Line drawings, black and white; 23 Tables, black and white; 24 Illustrations, black and white
  • Išleidimo metai: 02-Dec-2019
  • Leidėjas: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 0367178729
  • ISBN-13: 9780367178727
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:

A hands-on guide for applying research methods to common problems, issues, projects, and questions that communication practitioners deal with on a regular basis, this text demonstrates the relevance of research in professional roles and communication careers.

The second edition features updated material that covers major communication research methods including surveys, experiments, focus groups, observation research, while also providing key background information on ethics, validity, reliability, concept explication, statistical analysis, and other current topics. It continues to foster student engagement with research through its numerous features and practical activities, including:

  • Research in Depth – examples of methods as applied in scholarly research
  • Reflect and React – problems and issues that promote reflection and discussion
  • Voices from Industry – Q&As with professionals working in communication industries
  • End-of-unit activities – exercises that reinforce concepts and content

The text is ideally suited to both undergraduate and graduate courses in mass communication research methods.

Online resources, including sample syllabi, PowerPoint slides, and test banks are available on the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/boyle.

Preface xxiii
1 Basic Principles of Research and a Guide to Using This Book 2(10)
Principles of Research
3(4)
Empirical
3(1)
Systematic
4(1)
Intersubjective
4(1)
Cyclical and Self-Correcting
5(2)
Using This Book
7(4)
Steps to Success: The Research Process
7(3)
Voices From Industry: Jessica and Ziggy Zubric-Customer Experience Consultants
10(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 1 Topics
11(1)
Examples
11(1)
Advanced Discussion
11(1)
2 Basic Concepts of Research 12(28)
Variable
13(5)
Unit of Analysis
15(1)
Independent Variable
15(1)
Dependent Variable
16(1)
Third Variable
17(1)
Relationship
18(7)
Prediction
18(1)
Positive Versus Negative Relationship
19(1)
Mediation
20(2)
Moderation
22(1)
Reflect & React: Moderation
22(1)
Causality
23(1)
Time Order
24(1)
Confounds
24(1)
Theory
25(1)
Inductive Versus Deductive Reasoning
26(10)
Reflect & React: Developing and Testing Theories
28(1)
Falsification
28(1)
Research in Depth: Theories in Communication
29(1)
Parsimony
30(1)
Voices from Industry: Meghan E. Kennedy-Search Engine Marketing Strategist, Tower Marketing
31(1)
Scope
32(1)
Research Questions
33(1)
Hypotheses
33(3)
Activities
36(3)
Activity 2A: Getting Started With a Research Question or Hypothesis
36(1)
Activity 2B: Independent and Dependent Variables
37(1)
Activity 2C: Causality
38(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 2 Topics
39(1)
Examples
39(1)
Advanced Discussion
39(1)
3 Scholarly Research and the Creation of Knowledge 40(40)
Knowledge
41(1)
Bias
42(1)
Authority
43(2)
Research in Depth: The Power of Authority
44(1)
Intuition
45(1)
Reflect & React: Counterintuitive Findings
45(1)
Tenacity
46(1)
Replication
46(3)
Research in Depth: Understanding the Reproducibility Crisis
47(2)
Triangulation
49(2)
Voices from Industry: Chris Nietupski-Communication Consultant
50(1)
Secondary Analysis
51(1)
Publication Bias
52(1)
Goals of Research
53(6)
Steps to Success: Goals of Research
53(1)
Application
54(1)
Exploration
55(1)
Description
56(1)
Explanation
57(1)
Qualitative Versus Quantitative
58(1)
Parts of a Research Article
59(9)
Steps to Success: Effectively Reading a Research Article
59(1)
Abstract
60(1)
Literature Review
61(1)
Method Section
61(1)
Results Section
62(1)
Discussion Section
63(1)
Future Directions
63(1)
Reference List
64(1)
Appendix (or Appendices)
64(1)
Tables
65(1)
Figures
66(1)
Steps to Success: Identifying Research Articles
67(1)
Other Types of Articles
68(5)
Reflect & React: Effective Tables and Figures
69(1)
Literature Review Article
69(1)
Meta-analysis
70(1)
Data-Driven Journalism
71(2)
Activities
73(5)
Activity 3A: Reviewing the Theoretical Literature
73(1)
Activity 3B: Triangulation in Everyday Life
74(1)
Activity 3C: Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative Research
75(1)
Activity 3D: Knowledge Gaining
76(1)
Activity 3E: Evaluating Research Applications
77(1)
References
78(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 3 Topics
78(2)
Examples
78(1)
Advanced Discussion
79(1)
4 Ethical Research 80(20)
Principles of Ethical Research
81(7)
Avoid Harm
82(1)
Informed Consent
83(1)
Voluntary Participation
84(1)
Steps to Success: Creating an Effective Consent Form
85(1)
Privacy
86(1)
Anonymity
87(1)
Reflect & React: Ethical Concerns in Applied Research
87(1)
Confidentiality
87(1)
Techniques and Procedures
88(4)
Confederates
88(1)
Deception
89(1)
Reflect & React: Critically Analyzing Research
90(1)
Debriefing
90(1)
Institutional Review
91(1)
Honesty
92(3)
Plagiarism
93(1)
Research in Depth: Fabrication of Data
94(1)
Activities
95(3)
Activity 4A: Develop a Consent Form for Your Study
95(1)
Activity 4B: Ethical Principles and Alternative Approaches
96(1)
Activity 4C: Consent Form Evaluation
97(1)
References
98(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 4 Topics
98(2)
Examples
98(1)
Advanced Discussion
98(2)
5 Concept Explication and Measurement 100(22)
Concept Explication
101(8)
Concept
102(1)
Reflect & React: The Many Ways to Measure One Thing
103(1)
Conceptual Definition
104(1)
Dimension
105(1)
Steps to Success: Effective Concept Development
105(1)
Factor Analysis
106(1)
Operational Definition
107(1)
Indicator
108(1)
Attribute
109(1)
Levels of Measurement
109(7)
Steps to Success: Determining Level of Measurement
110(1)
Nominal-Level Measure
111(1)
Ordinal-Level Measure
112(1)
Interval-Level Measure
113(1)
Ratio-Level Measure
114(1)
Research in Depth
115(1)
Activities
116(4)
Activity SA: Explicating Concepts
116(1)
Activity SB: Matching Conceptual and Operational Definitions
117(1)
Activity SC: Defining and Measuring Everyday Concepts
118(1)
Activity SD: Evaluating the Explication Process in Scholarly Research
119(1)
References
120(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 5 Topics
120(2)
Examples
120(1)
Advanced Discussion
120(2)
6 Reliability and Validity 122(30)
Measurement Error
123(4)
Random Error
125(1)
Systematic Error
126(1)
Reflect & React: Validity of Everyday Items
127(1)
Reliability
127(4)
Item-Total Reliability
128(1)
Parallel-Forms Reliability
129(1)
Reflect & React: Reliability Assessments in Everyday Life
130(1)
Split-Halves Reliability
130(1)
Test-Retest Reliability
131(1)
Validity
131(10)
Construct Validity (Convergent and Discriminant)
132(1)
Reflect & React: But Is the Test Fair?
133(2)
Content Validity
135(1)
Criterion Validity (Concurrent and Predictive)
136(1)
Internal Validity
137(1)
Voices from Industry: Jake Weigler-Political Strategist
138(1)
External Validity/Generalizability
139(1)
Steps to Success: Ensuring Measurement Validity
140(1)
Index
141(5)
Cronbach's Alpha
142(2)
Steps to Success: Using Cronbach's Alpha to Improve Measurement
144(2)
Activities
146(4)
Activity 6A: Validating Communication Research Concepts
146(1)
Activity 6B: Cronbach's Alpha
147(1)
Activity 6C: Validity Critique
148(1)
Activity 6D: Applying Validity in Everyday Life
149(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 6 Topics
150(2)
Examples
150(1)
Advanced Discussion
150(2)
7 Effective Measurement 152(34)
Effective Measurement
153(2)
Observation
155(2)
Direct and Indirect Observation
155(1)
Reflect & React: The Uses of Indirect Measures
156(1)
Self-Report
156(1)
Others' Reports
157(1)
Observation Errors
157(3)
Reflect & React: Context Matters
159(1)
Reactive Measures
159(1)
Questionnaire Structure
160(10)
Questionnaire Design
162(1)
Voices from Industry: Michelle Rawl-Owner of Rawl Research, Inc.
163(1)
Research in Depth: Assessing the Questionnaire
164(2)
Steps to Success: Creating an Effective Questionnaire
166(1)
Filter and Contingency Questions
167(1)
Response Set
168(1)
Order Effects
169(1)
Question Creation
170(4)
Closed-Ended
170(1)
Open-Ended
171(1)
Reflect & React: Critical Thoughts on Customer Satisfaction Questionnaires
172(1)
Exhaustive
172(1)
Mutually Exclusive
173(1)
Question Wording Problems
174(4)
Leading Questions
174(1)
Social Desirability
175(1)
Clarity
176(1)
Double-Barreled
177(1)
Reflect & React: Thinking About Question Wording
177(1)
Types of Items
178(2)
Likert-Type Items
178(1)
Semantic Differential Items
178(2)
Activities
180(4)
Activity 7A: Develop a Questionnaire
180(1)
Activity 7B: Bad Questionnaire
181(1)
Activity 7C: Observation
182(1)
Activity 7D: Identify and Critique the Parts of a Questionnaire
183(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 7 Topics
184(2)
Examples and Cited Works
184(1)
Advanced Discussion
184(2)
8 Sampling 186(36)
Sample
187(9)
Representative Sample
189(1)
Response Rate
190(1)
Incentive
191(1)
Reflect & React: Appropriate Incentives
192(1)
Sample Size
192(1)
Research in Depth: Statistical Power
193(1)
Sampling Frame
194(1)
Steps to Success: Constructing an Effective Sample
195(1)
Population
196(1)
Census
197(1)
Estimation
197(6)
Confidence Level
198(1)
Confidence Interval
199(1)
Margin of Error
200(1)
Sampling Distribution
200(2)
Sampling Error
202(1)
Standard Error
202(1)
Nonprobability Sampling
203(5)
Convenience Sampling
204(1)
Deliberate Sampling
205(1)
Quota Sampling
206(1)
Snowball Sampling
207(1)
Volunteer Sampling
207(1)
Reflect & React: Nonprobability Sampling "Polls"
208(1)
Probability Sampling
208(8)
Random
209(1)
Random Number Table
210(1)
Reflect & React: Human Bias and Sampling
210(1)
Simple Random Sampling
211(1)
Cluster Sampling
211(1)
Research in Depth: Cluster Sampling
212(1)
Stratified Sampling
213(1)
Systematic Sampling
214(1)
Sampling Interval
214(2)
Activities
216(4)
Activity 8A: Sampling Strategy
216(1)
Activity 8B: Reporting on Poll Data
217(1)
Activity 8C: Sampling Strategies
218(1)
Activity 8D: Practicing Simple Random and Systematic Sampling
219(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 8 Topics
220(2)
Examples
220(1)
Advanced Discussion
220(2)
9 Experiments and Threats to Validity 222(38)
Experiments
223(17)
Random Assignment
225(1)
Matched (or Paired) Assignment
226(1)
Between-Subjects Design
227(1)
Reflect & React: Selection Bias and Its Impact on Experimental Findings
227(1)
Within-Subjects Design
228(1)
Quasi-Experimental Design
229(2)
Voices from Industry: Lisa Scott-Chief Creative Officer & Managing Director at OneMagnify
231(1)
Field Experiment
232(1)
Treatment Groups
233(1)
Stimulus
233(1)
Factor
234(1)
Research in Depth: Body Image
235(2)
Double-Blind Design
237(1)
Control Group
238(1)
Pre-Test and Post-Test
239(1)
Solomon Four-Group Design
240(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Experiments
240(2)
Ease of Replication
241(1)
Ecological Validity
242(1)
Threats to Validity
242(11)
Hawthorne Effect
243(1)
History
244(1)
Interparticipant Bias
245(1)
Maturation
245(1)
Mortality
246(1)
Regression Toward the Mean
247(1)
Ceiling and Floor Effects
248(1)
Researcher Bias
249(1)
Selection Bias
250(1)
Sensitization
250(1)
Steps to Success: Avoiding Threats to Validity
251(2)
Activities
253(5)
Activity 9A: Designing an Experiment
253(1)
Activity 9B: Critiquing an Experiment
254(1)
Activity 9C: Threats to Validity
255(1)
Activity 9D: Developing Stimulus Materials
256(1)
Activity 9E: Random Assignment
257(1)
References
258(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 9 Topics
258(2)
Examples
258(1)
Advanced Discussion
258(2)
10 Survey Research 260(26)
Survey Research
261(5)
Polls
262(1)
Tracking Poll
263(1)
Research in Depth: Interpreting Polls
263(1)
Cross-Sectional Design
264(1)
Research in Depth: Using Polls to Track Public Opinion
265(1)
Interview-Style Survey
266(6)
Voices from Industry: Erin Hyland-User Experience Leader (UX Lead Designer)
267(1)
Face-to-Face Survey
268(1)
Telephone Survey
268(1)
Cell-Phone-Only Household
269(1)
Research in Depth: The Growth of Cell Phones
270(1)
Rapport
271(1)
Reflect & React: Building Rapport
272(1)
Self-Administered Survey
272(4)
Internet Survey
273(1)
Internet Panels
274(1)
Mail Survey
275(1)
Longitudinal Designs
276(4)
Cohort
277(1)
Trend
277(1)
Panel
278(1)
Research in Depth: Panel Studies in Popular Culture
279(1)
Activities
280(4)
Activity 10A: Survey Design
280(1)
Activity 10B: Survey Research Critique
281(1)
Activity 10C: Interviewing Practice
282(1)
Activity 10D: Longitudinal Designs
283(1)
References
284(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 10 Topics
284(2)
Examples
284(1)
Advanced Discussion
284(2)
11 Content Analysis 286(20)
Content Analysis
287(2)
Unitizing
288(1)
Coding and the Coding Process
289(1)
Coding Guide
289(1)
Coding Sheet
290(1)
Computer-Aided Content Analysis
291(2)
Voices from Industry: Sue McCrossin-Founder of Boomtown Internet Group
292(1)
Intercoder Reliability
293(3)
Intercoder Statistics
294(1)
Research in Depth: Hostile Media Perceptions and the Challenge of Coding
295(1)
Steps to Success: Preparing for Intercoder Reliability
296(1)
Types of Content
296(4)
Social Artifacts
297(1)
Latent Content
298(1)
Reflect & React: Manifest and Latent Messages in Everyday Life
299(1)
Manifest Content
299(1)
Activities
300(4)
Activity 11A: Designing a Content Analysis That Answers Your Research Question
300(1)
Activity 11B: Evaluating Content Analysis in Research Articles
301(1)
Activity 11C: Evaluating Media Content
302(1)
Activity 11D: Evaluating an Existing Coding Scheme
303(1)
References
304(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 11 Topics
304(2)
Examples
304(1)
Advanced Discussion
304(2)
12 Qualitative Research 306(30)
Qualitative Research
307(2)
Reflexivity
308(1)
Case Study
309(2)
Reflect & React: Assessing Strengths and Weaknesses of Case Studies
310(1)
Field Research
311(6)
Ethnography
312(1)
Exiting
313(1)
Field Notes
314(1)
Natural Settings
315(1)
Saturation
316(1)
Focus Group
317(4)
Research in Depth: Uses of Focus Groups
319(1)
Voices from Industry: Connie Morris-Focus Group Expert
320(1)
Moderator
320(1)
Participant Observation
321(3)
Complete Observer
323(1)
Complete Participant
323(1)
Observer-as-Participant and Participant-as-Observer
324(1)
Qualitative/Depth Interviews
324(6)
Funnel
325(1)
Interview Structure
326(1)
Fully Structured Interview
327(1)
Semistructured Interview
327(1)
Unstructured Interview
328(1)
Steps to Success: Preparing for an Effective Qualitative Interview
328(1)
Reflect & React: Assessing Interview Structures
329(1)
Activities
330(5)
Activity 12A: Developing a Qualitative Research Project
330(1)
Activity 12B: Reading Qualitative Research
331(1)
Activity 12C: Conducting Participant Observation Research
332(1)
Activity 12D: Using Focus Groups in Applied Settings
333(1)
Activity 12E: Comparing and Contrasting Interview Structuress
334(1)
References
335(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 12 Topics
335(1)
Examples
335(1)
Advanced Discussion
335(1)
13 Approaches to Qualitative Analysis 336(22)
Qualitative Data Analysis
337(1)
Conversation Analysis
338(2)
Reflect & React: Observing Conversational Styles in Everyday Life
339(1)
Exemplars
340(1)
Grounded Theory
341(3)
Constant Comparative Technique
343(1)
Research in Depth: Grounded Theory
344(1)
Historical Analysis
344(2)
Rhetorical Criticism
346(2)
Voices from Industry: Bob Ford-Sports columnist for the Philadelphia Inquirer
347(1)
Textual Analysis
348(2)
Reflect & React: Critically Analyzing the Media We Consume
349(1)
Themes
350(1)
Transcript
351(3)
Steps to Success: Preparing the Transcript
351(3)
Activities
354(3)
Activity 13A: Interview Transcript and Analysis
354(1)
Activity 13B: Rhetorical Criticism
355(1)
Activity 13C: Using Grounded Theory
356(1)
References
357(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 13 Topics
357(1)
Examples
357(1)
Advanced Discussion
357(1)
14 Descriptive Statistics 358(28)
Statistics
359(1)
Descriptive Statistics
360(1)
Central Tendency
360(5)
Mean
361(1)
Median
362(1)
Reflect & React: Data Visualization
363(1)
Mode
364(1)
Dispersion
365(4)
Range
366(1)
Variance
366(1)
Voices from Industry: Daniel Pishock-Creative Digital Solutions Architect
367(1)
Standard Deviation
368(1)
Frequency Distribution
369(11)
Steps to Success: Computing the Standard Deviation
370(2)
Histogram
372(1)
Normal Distribution
373(2)
Kurtosis
375(1)
Outliers
376(1)
Research in Depth: Outliers
376(2)
Skew
378(1)
Research in Depth: Skewed Data
378(2)
Activities
380(5)
Activity 14A: Descriptive Statistics
380(1)
Activity 14B: Critical Analysis of Statistics in Practice
381(1)
Activity 14C: Statistics in Everyday Life
382(1)
Activity 14D: Visualizing Data
383(2)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 14 Topics
385(1)
Examples
385(1)
Advanced Discussion
385(1)
15 Principles of Inferential Statistics 386(40)
Inferential Statistics
387(4)
Voices from Industry: Shana Steigerwalt-President at Modern Driven Media
390(1)
Logic of Inference
391(12)
Null Hypothesis
392(1)
p-Value
393(2)
Statistical Significance
395(1)
Type I Error
396(1)
Research in Depth: Questionable Research Practices and Type I Error
397(3)
Bonferroni Correction
400(1)
Type II Error
400(1)
One-Tailed Versus Two-Tailed Tests
401(2)
Effect Size
403(15)
Variance Explained
404(1)
Reflect & React: Effect Sizes and Society
404(1)
Bivariate Analysis
405(1)
Chi-Square
406(3)
Steps to Success: Computing Chi-Square
409(1)
t-Tests
409(2)
One-Way ANOVA
411(2)
Correlation (Pearson's r)
413(2)
Linearity
415(3)
Activities
418(6)
Activity 15A: Preparing for Statistical Analysis
418(1)
Activity 15B: Critically Assessing Statistical Analysis
419(1)
Activity 15C: Statistical Testing in Experiments
420(1)
Activity 15D: Chi-Square
421(3)
References
424(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 15 Topics
424(2)
Examples
424(1)
Advanced Discussion
424(2)
16 Multivariate Inferential Statistics 426(29)
Multivariate Analysis
427(7)
Statistical Control
428(1)
Spuriousness
429(2)
Suppression
431(1)
Interaction
431(1)
Research in Depth: Alternatives to Null Hypothesis Testing
432(2)
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) With Multiple Independent Variables
434(4)
ANCO VA
435(1)
MANOVA
436(2)
Regression
438(12)
Steps to Success: Assumptions of Statistical Tests
440(2)
Unstandardized Coefficients
442(1)
Standardized Coefficients
443(1)
R2
444(1)
Logistic Regression
445(1)
Odds Ratio
446(1)
Steps to Success: Selecting the Appropriate Statistical Test
447(3)
Activities
450(4)
Activity 16A: Preparing for Multivariate Statistical Analysis
450(1)
Activity 16B: Critically Assessing Statistical Analysis
451(1)
Activity 16C: Multivariate Statistics in Survey Research
452(1)
Activity 16D: Determining Appropriate Statistical Tests
453(1)
Suggested Readings for Further Exploration of Unit 16 Topics
454(1)
Examples
454(1)
Advanced Discussion
454(1)
Index 455
Michael P. Boyle is a Professor in the Department of Communication and Media at West Chester University, USA. Mike Schmierbach is an Associate Professor in the Donald P. Bellisario College of Communications at The Pennsylvania State University, USA.