Audio Expert: Everything You Need to Know About Audio 2nd New edition [Minkštas viršelis]

(Co-owner, RealTraps, USA)
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 784 pages, aukštis x plotis: 235x191 mm, weight: 1429 g, 34 Tables, black and white; 100 Illustrations, black and white
  • Išleidimo metai: 06-Dec-2017
  • Leidėjas: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 0415788846
  • ISBN-13: 9780415788847
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 784 pages, aukštis x plotis: 235x191 mm, weight: 1429 g, 34 Tables, black and white; 100 Illustrations, black and white
  • Išleidimo metai: 06-Dec-2017
  • Leidėjas: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 0415788846
  • ISBN-13: 9780415788847

The Audio Expert is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of audio, with both practical and theoretical explanations. It is written for people who want to understand audio at the deepest, most technical level, but without needing an engineering degree. The Audio Expert explains how audio really works in much more depth than usual, using common sense plain-English explanations and mechanical analogies, with minimal math. It uses an easy to read conversational tone, and includes more than 400 figures and photos to augment the printed text.

However, this book goes beyond merely explaining how audio works. It brings together the concepts of audio, aural perception, musical instrument physics, acoustics, and basic electronics, showing how they’re intimately related. It also describes in great detail many practices and techniques used by recording and mixing engineers, including video production and computers. This book is meant for intermediate to advanced recording engineers and audiophiles who want to become experts. There’s plenty for beginners too.

One unique feature is explaining how audio devices such as equalizers, compressors, and A/D converters work internally, and how they’re spec’d and tested, rather than merely describing how to use them. There’s plenty of myth-busting and consumerism too. The book doesn’t tell readers what brand power amplifier to buy, but it explains in great detail what defines a good amplifier so people can choose a first-rate model wisely without over-paying.

Most explanations throughout the book are platform-agnostic, applying equally to Windows and Mac computers, and to most software and hardware. Many audio and video examples are included to enhance the written text.

The new edition offers many updates and improvements throughout. New sections on coding an equalizer, comparing microphone preamps, testing results of loudspeaker isolation devices, new online video content on music theory, plus incorporated chapters on MIDI basics, computers, video production, plus new myth-busters, and much more!

Recenzijos

"Winer has made his own experiments on many topics and shows measurements for many of these. Very laudable. ... All in all, this is a very useful reference book." - AES Journal

Acknowledgments xix
About the Author xxi
Introduction xxiii
Part
1. Audio Defined
1(132)
Chapter 1 Audio Basics
3(40)
Volume and Decibels
3(2)
Standard Signal Levels
5(3)
Signal Levels and Metering
8(2)
Calculating Decibels
10(1)
Frequencies
11(1)
Graphing Audio
12(1)
Standard Octave and Third-Octave Bands
12(1)
Filters
13(4)
Phase Shift and Time Delay
17(5)
Comb Filtering
22(5)
Fourier and the Fast Fourier Transform
27(2)
Sine Waves, Square Waves, and Pink Noise Oh My!
29(6)
Resonance
35(2)
Audio Terminology
37(2)
The Null Test
39(1)
Summary
40(3)
Chapter 2 Audio Fidelity, Measurements, and Myths
43(24)
High Fidelity Defined
43(1)
The Four Parameters
44(4)
Lies, Damn Lies, and Audio Gear Specs
48(1)
Test Equipment
49(6)
Audio Transparency
55(1)
Common Audio Myths
56(4)
The Stacking Myth
60(4)
Myth-Information
64(1)
The Big Picture
64(1)
Summary
65(2)
Chapter 3 Hearing, Perception, and Artifact Audibility
67(42)
Fletcher-Munson and the Masking Effect
69(2)
Distortion and Noise
71(2)
Jitter
73(1)
Audibility Testing
74(2)
Dither and Truncation Distortion
76(1)
Hearing Below the Noise Floor
77(1)
Frequency Response Changes
78(2)
Ultrasonics
80(2)
Ringing
82(4)
Aliasing
86(1)
Phase Shift
87(1)
Absolute Polarity
87(2)
Ears Are Not Linear!
89(1)
Blind Testing
90(3)
Calibrate the Preamp Gain Controls
93(1)
Prepare and Play the Tracks
94(1)
Psychoacoustic Effects
95(3)
Placebo Effect and Expectation Bias
98(1)
When Subjectivists Are (Almost) Correct
99(8)
Summary
107(2)
Chapter 4 Gozintas and Gozoutas
109(24)
Audio Signals
109(2)
Audio Wiring
111(6)
Audio Connectors
117(7)
Patch Panels
124(3)
Impedance
127(4)
Summary
131(2)
Part
2. Analog and Digital Recording, Processing, and Methods
133(264)
Chapter 5 Mixers, Buses, Routing, and Summing
135(36)
Solo, Mute, and Channel Routing
138(2)
Buses and Routing
140(1)
Console Automation
141(2)
Other Console Features
143(1)
Digital Audio Workstation Software and Mixing
144(3)
The Pan Law
147(1)
Connecting a Digital Audio Workstation to a Mixer
148(1)
Inputs and Outputs
149(3)
Setting Record Levels
152(1)
Monitoring with Effects
152(2)
The Windows Mixer
154(3)
Related Digital Audio Workstation Advice
157(1)
5.1 Surround Sound Basics
158(4)
Summing
162(2)
Gain Staging
164(1)
Microphone Preamplifiers
164(1)
Preamp Input Impedance
165(1)
Preamp Noise
166(1)
Clean and Flat Is Where It's At
167(1)
Summary
168(3)
Chapter 6 Recording Devices and Methods
171(40)
Recording Hardware
171(1)
Analog Tape Recording
172(1)
Tape Bias
173(1)
Tape Pre-Emphasis and De-Emphasis
174(1)
Sel-Sync
175(1)
Tape Noise Reduction
176(1)
Tape Pre-Distortion
177(1)
The Failings of Analog Tape
177(3)
Digital Recording
180(1)
In the Box versus Out of the Box
181(1)
Record Levels
182(1)
The Myth of Low Levels
183(2)
Recording Methods
185(2)
Specific Advice on Digital Audio Workstations
187(1)
Copy Protection
188(2)
Microphone Types and Methods
190(1)
Micing Techniques
191(7)
The 3-to-1 Rule
198(1)
Microphone Placement
199(2)
DI = Direct Injection
201(2)
Additional Recording Considerations
203(3)
Advanced Recording Techniques
206(1)
Vari-Speed
207(2)
Summary
209(2)
Chapter 7 Mixing Devices and Methods
211(30)
Volume Automation
211(2)
Editing
213(1)
Basic Music Mixing Strategies
214(1)
Be Organized
215(1)
Monitor Volume
215(1)
Reference Mixes
216(1)
Panning
216(1)
Getting the Bass Right
217(1)
Avoid Too Much Reverb
218(1)
Verify Your Mixes
218(1)
Thin Your Tracks
219(1)
Distance and Depth
219(1)
Bus versus Insert
219(1)
Pre and Post, Mute and Solo
220(1)
Room Tone
220(1)
Perception Is Fleeting
221(1)
Be Creative
222(1)
In the Box versus Out of the Box-Yes, Again
223(1)
Using Digital Audio Workstation Software
224(3)
Slip-Editing and Cross-Fading
227(1)
Track Lanes
228(1)
Normalizing
229(1)
Editing and Comping
230(1)
Rendering the Mix
231(1)
Who's on First?
231(2)
Time Alignment
233(1)
Editing Music
233(1)
Editing Narration
234(1)
Re-Amping
235(1)
Backward Audio
236(1)
Mastering
237(1)
Save Your Butt
238(1)
Summary
239(2)
Chapter 8 Digital Audio Basics
241(26)
Sampling Theory
241(1)
Quantization
242(2)
Sample Rate and Bit Depth
244(1)
The Reconstruction Filter
244(2)
Oversampling
246(1)
Bit Depth
246(1)
Pulse-Code Modulation versus Direct Stream Digital
247(1)
Digital Notation
248(2)
Sample Rate and Bit Depth Conversion
250(2)
Dither and Jitter
252(1)
External Clocks
253(1)
Digital Converter Internals
254(2)
Bit-Rate
256(1)
Digital Signal Processing
257(1)
Latency
258(1)
Floating Point Math
259(3)
Early Digital
262(2)
Digital Audio Quality
264(1)
Digital Timing
264(1)
Summary
265(2)
Chapter 9 Dynamics Processors
267(20)
Compressors and Limiters
267(3)
Using a Compressor
270(1)
Common Pitfalls
270(1)
Multi-band Compressors
271(2)
Noise Gates and Expanders
273(2)
Noise Gate Tricks
275(1)
Expanders
275(1)
But
276(1)
Dynamics Processor Special Techniques
277(1)
Other Dynamics Processors
278(3)
Compressor Internals
281(1)
Time Constants
282(3)
Summary
285(2)
Chapter 10 Frequency Processors
287(24)
Equalizer Types
287(4)
All Equalizers (Should) Sound the Same
291(1)
Digital Equalizers
292(1)
EQ Techniques
293(2)
Boosting versus Cutting
295(1)
Common EQ Frequencies
296(1)
Mixes That Sound Great Loud
297(1)
Complementary EQ
298(1)
Mid/Side Equalization
299(1)
Extreme EQ
299(1)
Linear Phase Equalizers
300(2)
Equalizer Internals
302(2)
Other Frequency Processors
304(4)
Summary
308(3)
Chapter 11 Time Domain Processors
311(16)
Echo
311(3)
Reverb
314(8)
Phasers and Flangers
322(2)
Summary
324(3)
Chapter 12 Pitch and Time Manipulation Processors
327(8)
Pitch Shifting Basics
327(4)
Auto-Tune and Melodyne
331(1)
Acidized Wave Files
332(1)
Summary
333(2)
Chapter 13 Other Audio Processors
335(10)
Tape-Sims and Amp-Sims
335(2)
Other Distortion Effects
337(1)
Software Noise Reduction
337(3)
Other Processors
340(1)
Vocal Removal
341(1)
Ring Modulators
342(1)
Summary
343(2)
Chapter 14 Synthesizers
345(36)
Analog versus Digital Synthesizers
345(1)
Additive versus Subtractive Synthesis
346(3)
Voltage Control
349(1)
Sound Generators
349(1)
Modulators
350(2)
Filters
352(1)
MIDI Keyboards
353(1)
Beyond Presets
354(3)
Alternate Controllers
357(3)
Samplers
360(3)
Software Synthesizers and Samplers
363(1)
Sample Libraries
364(1)
Creating Sample Libraries
365(2)
Key and Velocity Switching
367(1)
Sampler Bank Architecture
368(2)
FM Synthesis
370(3)
Physical Modeling
373(1)
Granular Synthesis
374(1)
Prerendering
374(1)
Algorithmic Composition
375(1)
Notation Software
376(3)
Summary
379(2)
Chapter 15 MIDI Basics
381(16)
MIDI Internal Details
381(1)
MIDI Hardware
382(1)
MIDI Channels and Data
383(1)
MIDI Data Transmission
384(1)
General MIDI
385(3)
Standard MIDI Files
388(1)
MIDI Clock Resolution
389(2)
MIDI Minutiae
391(1)
Playing and Editing MIDI
392(2)
Summary
394(3)
Part
3. Video Production
397(22)
Chapter 16 Video Production
399(20)
Video Production Basics
399(2)
Live Concert Example
401(1)
Color Correction
402(3)
Synchronizing Video to Audio
405(1)
Panning and Zooming
406(1)
Video Transitions
407(2)
Key Frames
409(2)
Orchestra Example
411(1)
Cello Rondo and Tele-Vision Examples
412(2)
Backgrounds
414(1)
Time-Lapse Video
414(1)
Media File Formats
415(1)
Lighting
416(1)
Summary
417(2)
Part
4. Transducers
419(78)
Chapter 17 Microphones and Pickups
421(26)
Microphone Types
422(1)
Dynamic Microphones
423(3)
Dynamic Directional Patterns
426(3)
Ribbon Microphones
429(3)
Condenser Microphones
432(4)
Condenser Directional Patterns
436(1)
Other Microphone Types
437(1)
Phantom Power
438(2)
Microphone Specs
440(1)
Measuring Microphone Response
441(2)
Microphone Modeling
443(1)
Guitar Pickups and Vibrating Strings
444(1)
Summary
445(2)
Chapter 18 Loudspeakers and Earphones
447(50)
Loudspeaker Basics
447(3)
Loudspeaker Driver Types
450(5)
Loudspeaker Enclosure Types
455(7)
Subwoofers
462(2)
Enclosure Refinements
464(1)
Crossovers
465(2)
Active versus Passive Speakers
467(2)
Room Acoustics Considerations
469(1)
Loudspeaker Impedance
470(3)
Loudspeaker Isolation
473(8)
Loudspeaker Polarity
481(1)
Earphones
482(1)
Loudspeaker Specs
482(6)
Accurate or Pleasing?
488(4)
House Curves
492(2)
Summary
494(3)
Part
5. Room Acoustics, Treatment, and Monitoring
497(138)
Chapter 19 Acoustic Basics
499(36)
Room Orientation and Speaker Placement
500(4)
Symmetry
504(1)
Reflection Points
505(7)
Won't All That Absorption Make My Room Sound Dead?
512(2)
Calculating Reflection Points
514(3)
Angling the Walls and Ceiling
517(1)
Low-Frequency Problems
518(3)
Reverb Decay Time
521(1)
Stereo Monitoring
522(4)
Surround Monitoring
526(1)
SPL Meters
527(6)
Summary
533(2)
Chapter 20 Room Shapes, Modes, and Isolation
535(28)
Modal Distribution
536(1)
Room Ratios
537(2)
Modes, Nodes, and Standing Waves
539(1)
ModeCalc Program
540(2)
Room Anomalies
542(3)
Odd Room Layouts
545(2)
One Room versus Two Rooms
547(1)
Vocal Booths
548(1)
Surface Reflectivity
549(3)
Calculating Reflections
552(1)
Isolation and Noise Control
552(5)
Air Leaks
557(1)
Room within a Room
558(2)
Summary
560(3)
Chapter 21 Acoustic Treatment
563(50)
Acoustic Treatment Overview
563(1)
Buy or Build?
564(1)
Flutter Echo
565(1)
Absorb or Diffuse?
566(1)
Rigid Fiberglass
567(1)
Absorption Specs
568(2)
Material Thickness and Density
570(2)
Acoustic Fabric
572(1)
Wave Velocity, Pressure, and Air Gaps
573(1)
Bass Traps
574(2)
DIY Bass Traps
576(6)
Free Bass Traps!
582(4)
Diffusers
586(5)
Treating Listening Rooms and Home Theaters
591(3)
Bass in the Place
594(1)
Front Wall Absorption
595(2)
Treating Live Recording Rooms
597(1)
Hard Floor, Soft Ceiling
598(2)
Variable Acoustics
600(1)
Treating Odd Shaped Rooms
601(1)
Treating Large Venues
602(3)
Room Equalization
605(6)
Summary
611(2)
Chapter 22 Room Measuring
613(22)
Why We Measure
613(1)
How We Measure
613(3)
Room Measuring Software
616(1)
Configuring Room EQ Wizard
616(2)
Using Room EQ Wizard
618(2)
Interpreting the Data
620(2)
Waterfall Plots
622(1)
RT
T60
Reverb Time
622(1)
Energy Time Curve
623(2)
Using the Real Time Analyzer
625(1)
Measuring Microphones
626(1)
Microphones Comparison
626(3)
The Results
629(3)
Calibrating Loudspeakers
632(1)
Summary
633(2)
Part
6. Electronics and Computers
635(102)
Chapter 23 Basic Electronics in
60(639)
Minutes
639(1)
Ground
639(2)
Volts, Amps, Watts, and Ohms
641(2)
Electronic Components
643(3)
Capacitor Upgrades
646(1)
Inductors
647(1)
Power Ratings
648(1)
Solenoids
649(2)
Transformers
651(4)
Acoustic Impedance
655(1)
Switches
656(1)
Diodes
657(3)
Parasitic Elements
660(2)
Active Solid-State Devices
662(2)
Amplifier Damping
664(1)
Negative Feedback
665(1)
Power Supplies
666(1)
Passive Filters
667(1)
Amplifiers
668(3)
Slew Rate
671(3)
Understanding Op-Amps
674(2)
Negative Feedback
676(2)
Op-Amp Circuits with Gain
678(3)
Active Filters
681(1)
Digital Logic
682(4)
Wiring
686(2)
Practical Electronics
688(2)
Splitters and Pads
690(1)
Phone Patch
691(1)
Schematics and PC Boards
692(4)
Summary
696(3)
Chapter 24 Test Procedures
699(16)
Frequency Response
701(1)
Ringing
701(1)
Harmonic Distortion
702(1)
IM Distortion
703(3)
Null Tests
706(3)
Disproving Common Beliefs
709(1)
Oscilloscopes
709(4)
Summary
713(2)
Chapter 25 Computers
715(22)
Divide and Conquer
715(4)
Back Up Your Data
719(1)
Optimizing Performance
720(2)
Practice Safe Computing
722(1)
If It Ain't Broke, Don't Fix It
723(1)
Avoid Email Viruses
723(1)
Bits 'n' Bytes
724(2)
Computer Programming
726(1)
Coding an Equalizer
727(4)
Website Programming
731(2)
Image Files
733(1)
Custom Error Page with Redirect
733(1)
Embedded Audio and Video
734(1)
Summary
735(2)
Part
7. Musical Instruments
737(32)
Chapter 26 Musical Instruments
739(30)
Instrument Types
740(3)
Sympathetic Resonance
743(1)
The Harmonic Series Is Out of Tune
743(2)
Equal Temperament
745(1)
"Wood Box" Instruments
746(1)
Bowed Instruments
747(4)
The Bow
751(1)
The Stradivarius
751(1)
Plucked Instruments
752(2)
Amplification
754(1)
Solid Body Electric Guitars
754(1)
Blown Instruments
755(2)
Flutes
757(1)
Single Reeds
757(1)
Double Reeds
758(2)
Brass Instruments
760(1)
Percussion Instruments
761(2)
The Piano
763(2)
Mozart, Beethoven, and Archie Bell
765(1)
Summary
766(3)
Index 769
Ethan Winer has, at various times, earned a living as a professional musician, computer programmer, circuit designer, recording engineer, composer/arranger, technical writer, acoustician, and college instructor. Ethan has more than 150 feature articles published in various computer and audio magazines. He has produced dozens of educational and music videos, and composed three pieces for full orchestra, all of which have been performed. He now co-owns RealTraps, a manufacturer of acoustic treatment.