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Legacy of Carbon Dioxide: Past and Present Impacts [Minkštas viršelis]

(Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA)
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 235 pages, aukštis x plotis: 254x178 mm, weight: 522 g, 15 Tables, black and white; 215 Illustrations, black and white
  • Išleidimo metai: 10-May-2019
  • Leidėjas: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 036719080X
  • ISBN-13: 9780367190804
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 235 pages, aukštis x plotis: 254x178 mm, weight: 522 g, 15 Tables, black and white; 215 Illustrations, black and white
  • Išleidimo metai: 10-May-2019
  • Leidėjas: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 036719080X
  • ISBN-13: 9780367190804
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
The Legacy of Carbon Dioxide: Past and Present Impacts covers the truly varied roles carbon dioxide has played and continues to play in the character of our planet. Chapters address the synthesis of CO2 in stars, the evolution of the atmosphere over billions of years, the chemical and physical properties of CO2 and how those influence common phenomena. How well this knowledge is understood and how it was determined, including existing uncertainties in our confidence and the stress from competing possibilities are discussed. Much of the technological jargon in various incorporated sciences has been modified to ease consumption by the non-expert. Features: Provides a historical panorama on how much the world has changed over the eons and the vast influence of carbon dioxide in these changes Follows CO2 through acidic explosive waters, volcanic episodes, sequestered reservoirs, and the chemistry of life Examines the broad scope of chemical and physical attributes carbon dioxide is capable of and their impacts Much of the technological verbiage in various incorporated sciences has been modified to ease consumption by the non-expert. This book is a valuable resource for readers interested in the science of carbon dioxide as well as natural science, the environment, scientific methods, chemistry, and geological sciences.
Preface xi
Acknowledgment xiii
Author xv
Academic Genealogy xvii
Chapter 1 Starting Elements
1(6)
Nucleosynthesis
1(1)
The Elements of Chemistry
2(2)
Atoms
4(1)
Compounds and Molecules
5(2)
Chapter 2 Early Earth and Our Solar System
7(10)
Gestation: Forming Planets with Atmospheres
7(1)
Early Atmospheric Activity
8(1)
Atmospheric Influences during Earth's Infancy
9(2)
Sibling Planets
11(1)
The Toddler Earth
12(1)
Adolescent Earth
13(1)
Earth's Puberty
14(1)
Commencement
15(2)
Chapter 3 Discovery
17(6)
Van Helmont
17(1)
Hales
18(1)
Black
18(2)
Cavendish
20(1)
Hamilton
21(1)
Priestley
21(2)
Chapter 4 Structure
23(6)
CO2
23(2)
Other Properties of Carbon Dioxide
25(1)
Other Carbon--Oxygen Molecules
26(1)
Phases
26(3)
Chapter 5 Radiocarbon and Its Dioxide
29(12)
Cosmic Rays
29(1)
Production of Radiocarbon
29(1)
Isotope Effects
30(1)
Radioactive Decay of Carbon-14
31(1)
Age Calibrations
32(3)
Deviates
35(1)
Other Complications
35(2)
Anthropocene
37(2)
Modern Tweaks
39(2)
Chapter 6 The Air Today
41(8)
Air Pressure
41(1)
Air Composition
41(2)
Carbon Dioxide Variations
43(3)
Historical Prescience on Carbon Dioxide
46(3)
Chapter 7 Ye Olde Aire
49(12)
Mapping Time
49(2)
History of the Atmosphere
51(1)
Precambrian Air
51(2)
Phanerozoic
53(1)
Early Paleozoic Era
54(1)
Carboniferous Period
54(1)
Mesozoic Era
55(1)
Cenozoic Era
56(5)
Chapter 8 Proxies
61(12)
Borate Proxy
61(1)
Reading about the Atmosphere in Ice
62(5)
Cave Droppings
67(1)
Reading about the Atmosphere in Tea Leaves
68(1)
Soiled Records
69(1)
Alkenones, Marine Algae Compounds
70(1)
Reading about the Atmosphere in Amber
71(2)
Chapter 9 Fire
73(10)
Forests
73(2)
Bogs
75(5)
Megafires
80(1)
Global Conflagration
80(1)
Coal Fires
81(2)
Chapter 10 Carbon Dioxide and Water
83(14)
Water
83(1)
pH
83(1)
Buffers, Acidity, and Alkalinity
84(2)
Enter CO2
86(1)
CO2 Solubility
86(2)
Temperature Effects
88(1)
pH Effects
89(1)
Pressure Effects
90(1)
Carbon Dioxide and Seawater
90(2)
Restraint: The Revelle Factor
92(2)
Fresh Water Considerations
94(3)
Chapter 11 Going with the Flow
97(10)
Rivers and Oceans
97(1)
Water Carrier
97(3)
The Oceans
100(3)
Feeding the Oceans
103(1)
Deep Sea Vents
104(3)
Chapter 12 Carbonates: The Enduring Legacy
107(14)
Setting the Scene
107(1)
Whither the Ocean's Carbon Dioxide?
107(1)
Chalk
108(1)
Solubility, Saturation, and Supersaturation
109(2)
Distribution
111(1)
Carbonates in the Ocean
112(2)
Caves
114(1)
Cement
115(1)
Marble
115(1)
Alabaster
116(1)
Travertine
116(2)
Ear Sand
118(1)
Other Carbonate Minerals
119(1)
The Enduring Legacy
120(1)
Chapter 13 Volcanoes
121(14)
Out of this Earth
121(3)
Carbon Dioxide Powered Volcanoes
124(1)
Killer Lakes
125(3)
Flood Volcanism and Traps
128(3)
Dinosaurus Extinctus
131(1)
Underwater Flood
132(1)
Earthquakes
133(2)
Chapter 14 Photosynthesis
135(18)
Significance
135(1)
Discovery
136(2)
Mechanism of the Synthesis
138(1)
Calvin Photosynthesis Cycle
139(3)
More Water, Less Water, Any Alternative Paths?
142(1)
Light
143(2)
Changes
145(1)
Hidden Carbon Dioxide
146(2)
Night and Day, Summer and Winter, Up and Down
148(2)
Photosynthesis Alternatives
150(1)
Nobel Prizes Related to Photosynthesis
151(2)
Chapter 15 Respiration and Metabolism
153(12)
Photorespiration
155(2)
Respiration and Hemoglobin
157(2)
CO2 and Blood
159(2)
Hyperventilation
161(1)
It's a Croc!
161(1)
Apollo 13
162(2)
Breath Analysis
164(1)
Planned Unconsciousness
164(1)
Carbon Dioxide Flooding
164(1)
Chapter 16 Weathering
165(10)
Water on the Rocks
165(1)
CO2 Sponge
165(1)
Discovery
166(2)
Weathering and Carbon Dioxide
168(1)
Early Earth
169(1)
Life and Weathering
169(2)
Yet Another Consideration
171(1)
More Recently
172(1)
Uh-Oh, Sinkholes
172(3)
Chapter 17 Carbon Dioxide and Ice Overs
175(12)
Snowball Earth
175(5)
Runaway Glaciation
180(1)
Runaway Sauna
181(2)
Survivors
183(1)
Embedded Compasses
184(1)
Carbonate Isotope Effects
184(2)
Snowball Earth: Beta Version
186(1)
Chapter 18 Food and Drink
187(4)
Digestion and Carbon Dioxide
187(3)
Bread, Beer, Champagne
190(1)
Soda
190(1)
Chapter 19 Fossil Fuels
191(6)
Origins
191(3)
Alternative Source
194(1)
But Wait! There's Mire
194(3)
Chapter 20 Isotope Stories
197(18)
Storytellers
197(1)
Early Ice Ages, Briefly
197(3)
Isotope Effects
200(1)
Why Any Effect?
201(1)
Isotope Fractionations in Nature
202(1)
Mass Measurements
202(2)
Carbon Isotope Fractionations
204(1)
TRecs
204(2)
More Complex Influences on Isotope Fractionation
206(1)
"You Are What You Eat"
207(1)
The Vostok Saga
208(2)
Coordinated Chronicles
210(1)
The Devil's Hole Tale
211(2)
Postscript
213(2)
Appendix: On a Piece of Chalk 215(14)
Bibliography 229(2)
Index 231
Paul J. Karol, the author, is a linear academic descendent of Joseph Black, the discoverer of carbon dioxide. He is Professor Emeritus and has been on the chemistry faculty at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh for over forty years and received two awards for teaching during that period. His undergraduate degree in chemistry was from Johns Hopkins University and his postdoctoral research was done at Brookhaven National Laboratory. His doctorate degree in nuclear chemistry was acquired at Columbia University under the auspices of Dr. J. M. Miller. Prof. Karol has served as Chair of the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society, as Chair of the Committee on Nomenclature, Terminology and Symbols of the American Chemical Society, as Chair of the Committee on Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and as Chair of the Joint Working Party on the Disovery of New Elements of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. He served as Associate Dean of Science at Carnegie Mellon and Visiting Professor to the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Legnaro, Italy and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in Tokai, Japan. He is the author of over 100 publications.