Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 7th Revised edition [Kietas viršelis]

(Naujas leidimas: 9780323583473)
  • Formatas: Hardback, 1840 pages, aukštis x plotis x storis: 281x222x66 mm, weight: 3969 g, Approx. 1320 illustrations (1190 in full color)
  • Išleidimo metai: 14-Jan-2014
  • Leidėjas: Mosby
  • ISBN-10: 0323088546
  • ISBN-13: 9780323088541 (Naujas leidimas: 9780323583473)
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
  • Formatas: Hardback, 1840 pages, aukštis x plotis x storis: 281x222x66 mm, weight: 3969 g, Approx. 1320 illustrations (1190 in full color)
  • Išleidimo metai: 14-Jan-2014
  • Leidėjas: Mosby
  • ISBN-10: 0323088546
  • ISBN-13: 9780323088541 (Naujas leidimas: 9780323583473)
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
With easy-to-read, in-depth descriptions of disease, disease etiology, and disease processes,Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, 7th Editionhelps you understand the most important and the most complex pathophysiology concepts. More than 1,200 full-color illustrations and photographs make it easier to identify normal anatomy and physiology, as well as alterations of function. This edition includes a NEW Epigenetics and Disease chapter along with additional Whats New boxeshighlighting the latest advances in pathophysiology. Written by well-known educators Kathryn McCance and Sue Huether, and joined by a team of expert contributors, this resource is the most comprehensive and authoritative pathophysiology text available!Over 1,200 full-color illustrations and photographs depict the clinical manifestations of disease and disease processes - more than in any other pathophysiology text.A fully updated glossary includes 1,000 terms, and makes lookup easier by grouping together similar topics and terms.Outstanding authors Kathryn McCance and Sue Huether have extensive backgrounds as researchers and instructors, and utilize expert contributors, consultants, and reviewers in developing this edition.Chapter summary reviews provide concise synopses of the main points of each chapter.Consistent presentation of diseases includes pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment.Lifespan content includes ten separate pediatric chapters and special sections with aging and pediatrics content.Algorithms and flowcharts of diseases and disorders make it easy to follow the sequential progression of disease processes.Nutrition and Disease boxes explain the link between concepts of health promotion and disease.EXTENSIVELY Updated content reflects advances in pathophysiology including tumor biology invasion and metastases, the epidemiology of cancer, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, thyroid and adrenal gland disorders, female reproductive disorders including benign breast diseases and breast cancer, and a separate chapter on male reproductive disorders and cancer.NEW! Chapter on epigenetics and disease.Additional Whats New boxes highlight the most current research and clinical development.
Introduction to Pathophysiology xv
PART ONE CENTRAL CONCEPTS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: CELLS AND TISSUES
Unit I The Cell
1 Cellular Biology
1(48)
Kathryn L. McCance
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
2(1)
Cellular Functions
2(1)
Structure and Function of Cellular Components
2(1)
Nucleus
2(2)
Cytoplasmic Organelles
4(7)
Plasma Membranes
11(5)
Cellular Receptors
16(1)
Cell-to-Cell Adhesions
17(1)
Extracellular Matrix
17(1)
Specialized Cell Junctions
18(2)
Cellular Communication and Signal Transduction
20(1)
Signal Transduction
21(1)
Extracellular Messengers and Channel Regulation
22(1)
Second Messengers
22(3)
Cellular Metabolism
25(1)
Role of Adenosine Triphosphate
25(1)
Food and Production of Cellular Energy
26(1)
Oxidative Phosphorylation
27(1)
Membrane Transport: Cellular Intake and Output
28(1)
Movement of Water and Solutes
28(5)
Transport by Vesicle Formation
33(3)
Movement of Electrical Impulses: Membrane Potentials
36(1)
Cellular Reproduction: The Cell Cycle
37(1)
Phases of Mitosis and Cytokinesis
37(1)
Rates of Cellular Division
37(1)
Growth Factors
38(1)
Tissues
39(1)
Tissue Formation
39(1)
Types of Tissues
39(10)
2 Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology
49(54)
Kathryn L. McCance
Todd Cameron Grey
George Rodway
Cellular Adaptation
50(1)
Atrophy
50(1)
Hypertrophy
51(1)
Hyperplasia
51(2)
Dysplasia: Not a True Adaptive Change
53(1)
Metaplasia
54(1)
Cellular Injury
54(1)
General Mechanisms of Cell Injury
55(1)
Hypoxic Injury
56(3)
Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species---Oxidative Stress
59(3)
Chemical Injury
62(8)
Unintentional and Intentional Injuries
70(1)
Injury from Errors in Health Care
71(4)
Infectious Injury
75(1)
Immunologic and Inflammatory Injury
75(1)
Injurious Genetic/Epigenetic Factors
75(1)
Injurious Nutritional Imbalances
75(1)
Injurious Physical Agents
75(8)
Manifestations of Cellular Injury
83(1)
Cellular Manifestations: Accumulations
83(5)
Systemic Manifestations
88(1)
Cellular Death
88(1)
Necrosis
88(3)
Apoptosis
91(1)
Autophagy: Death but Also Survival
92(1)
AGING and Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology
93(1)
Normal Life Span and Life Expectancy
94(3)
Somatic Death
97(6)
3 The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids and Bases
103(32)
Alexa K. Doig
Sue E. Huether
Distribution of Body Fluids
103(1)
Aging and Distribution of Body Fluids
104(1)
Water Movement Between ICF and ECF
105(1)
Water Movement Between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid
105(1)
Alterations in Water Movement
105(1)
Edema
105(3)
Sodium, Chloride, and Water Balance
108(1)
Sodium and Chloride Balance
108(1)
Water Balance
109(1)
Alterations in Sodium, Chloride, and Water Balance
109(1)
Isotonic Alterations
109(1)
Hypertonic Alterations
110(2)
Hypotonic Alterations
112(2)
Alterations in Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Balance
114(1)
Potassium
114(5)
Calcium and Phosphate
119(3)
Magnesium
122(1)
Acid-Base Balance
122(1)
Hydrogen Ion and pH
122(1)
Buffer Systems
123(3)
Acid-Base Imbalances
126(9)
Unit II Genes and Gene-Environment Interaction
4 Genes and Genetic Diseases
135(29)
Lynn B. Jorde
DNA, RNA, and Proteins: Heredity at the Molecular Level
136(1)
DNA
136(5)
From Genes to Proteins
141(1)
Chromosomes
142(1)
Chromosome Aberrations and Associated Diseases
143(8)
Elements of Formal Genetics
151(1)
Phenotype and Genotype
151(1)
Dominance and Recessiveness
151(1)
Transmission of Genetic Diseases
151(1)
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
152(2)
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
154(2)
X-Linked Inheritance
156(3)
Evaluation of Pedigrees
159(1)
Linkage Analysis and Gene Identification
159(1)
Classical Pedigree Analysis
159(1)
Assigning Loci to Specific Chromosomes
160(4)
5 Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases
164(19)
Lynn B. Jorde
Factors Influencing Incidence of Disease in Populations
164(1)
Concepts of Incidence and Prevalence
164(1)
Analysis of Risk Factors
165(1)
Principles of Multifactorial Inheritance
165(1)
Basic Model
165(1)
Threshold Model
166(1)
Recurrence Risks and Transmission Patterns
167(2)
Nature and Nurture: Disentangling the Effects of Genes and Environment
169(1)
Twin Studies
169(1)
Adoption Studies
170(1)
Genetics of Common Diseases
171(1)
Congenital Malformations
171(1)
Multifactorial Disorders in the Adult Population
171(12)
6 Epigenetics and Disease
183(8)
Lynn B. Jorde
Epigenetics and Development
184(1)
Twin Studies Provide Insights on Epigenetic Modification
185(1)
Epigenetics and Cancer
186(1)
DNA Methylation and Cancer
186(1)
miRNAs and Cancer
186(1)
Strategies for Treating Epigenetic Disease
186(1)
Genomic Imprinting
187(1)
Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes
187(1)
Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
188(1)
Russell-Silver Syndrome
188(1)
Future Directions
188(3)
Unit III Mechanisms of Self-Defense
7 Innate Immunity: Inflammation
191(33)
Neal S. Rote
Sue E. Huether
Kathryn L. McCance
Human Defense Mechanisms
192(1)
First Line of Defense: Physical, Mechanical, and Biochemical Barriers
192(1)
Physical and Mechanical Barriers
192(1)
Biochemical Barriers
192(3)
Second Line of Defense: The Inflammatory Response
195(1)
Vascular Response
195(2)
Plasma Protein Systems
197(4)
Cellular Mediators of Inflammation
201(12)
Local Manifestations of Inflammation
213(1)
Systemic Manifestations of Acute Inflammation
213(1)
Fever
213(1)
Leukocytosis
213(1)
Plasma Protein Synthesis
214(1)
Chronic Inflammation
214(1)
Resolution and Repair
215(1)
Reconstructive Phase
216(2)
Maturation Phase
218(1)
Dysfunctional Wound Healing
218(2)
Pediatrics and Mechanisms of Self-Defense
220(1)
Aging and Mechanisms of Self-Defense
220(4)
8 Adaptive Immunity
224(38)
Neal S. Rote
Kathryn L. McCance
General Characteristics of Adaptive Immunity
225(1)
Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity
226(1)
Active vs. Passive Immunity
227(1)
Recognition and Response
227(1)
Antigens and Immunogens
228(1)
Molecules That Recognize Antigen
229(4)
Molecules That Present Antigen
233(2)
Molecules That Hold Cells Together
235(1)
Cytokines and Their Receptors
235(1)
Generation of Clonal Diversity
236(1)
T-Cell Maturation
237(3)
B-Cell Maturation
240(1)
Induction of an Immune Response: Clonal Selection
241(1)
Secondary Lymphoid Organs
242(1)
Antigen Processing and Presentation
242(3)
T-Helper Lymphocytes
245(2)
B-Cell Activation: The Humoral Immune Response
247(2)
T-Cell Activation: The Cellular Immune Response
249(2)
Effector Mechanisms
251(1)
Antibody Function
251(4)
T-Lymphocyte Function
255(2)
Fetal and Neonatal Immune Function
257(1)
Aging and Immune Function
257(5)
9 Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation
262(36)
Neal S. Rote
Kathryn L. McCance
Hypersensitivity: Allergy, Autoimmunity, and Alloimmunity
262(1)
Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity
263(7)
Antigenic Targets of Hypersensitivity Reactions
270(7)
Autoimmune and Alloimmune Diseases
277(4)
Deficiencies in Immunity
281(1)
Initial Clinical Presentation
281(1)
Primary Immune Deficiencies
281(8)
Secondary Immune Deficiencies
289(3)
Evaluation and Care of Those with Immune Deficiency
292(1)
Replacement Therapies for Immune Deficiencies
293(5)
10 Infection
298(40)
Neal S. Rote
Sue E. Huether
Emerging Infections
299(1)
Microorganisms and Humans: A Dynamic Relationship
300(1)
Microorganisms and Infections
300(1)
Process of Infection
300(1)
Clinical Infectious Disease
301(1)
Classes of Infectious Microorganisms
302(20)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
322(1)
Transmission
322(2)
Pathogenesis
324(2)
Clinical Manifestations
326(1)
Treatment and Prevention
327(1)
Pediatric AIDS and Central Nervous System Involvement
327(2)
Countermeasures Against Pathogens
329(1)
Infection Control Measures
329(1)
Antimicrobials
330(2)
Active Immunization: Vaccines
332(1)
Passive Immunotherapy
333(5)
11 Stress and Disease
338(25)
Margaret F. Clayton
Kathryn L. McCance
Historical Background and General Concepts
338(1)
Concepts of Stress
339(3)
Psychoneuroimmunologic Mediators of Stress
342(1)
Stress Response
343(1)
Central Stress Response
343(1)
Neuroendocrine Regulation
344(9)
Stress and the Immune System
353(2)
Stress, Personality, Coping, and Illness
355(2)
Coping
357(1)
Aging and Stress: Stress-Age Syndrome
358(5)
Unit IV Cellular Proliferation: Cancer
12 Cancer Biology
363(39)
Neal S. Rote
David M. Virshup
Cancer Characteristics and Terminology
363(1)
Tumor Classification and Nomenclature
364(4)
The Biology of Cancer Cells
368(4)
The Genetic Basis of Cancer
372(1)
Cancer-Causing Mutations in Genes
372(1)
Oncogenes and Tumor-Suppressor Genes: Accelerators and Brakes
373(2)
Gene Changes That Occur in Cancer
375(4)
Guardians of the Genome
379(1)
Types of Genes Misregulated in Cancer
380(2)
Inflammation, Immunity, and Cancer
382(5)
Cancer Invasion and Metastasis
387(1)
Only Rare Cells in a Cancer Are Able to Metastasize
388(1)
Detachment and Invasion
388(1)
Survival and Spread in the Circulation
389(1)
Selective Adherence in Favorable Sites
389(1)
Escape from the Circulation and Development of a New Microenvironment
390(2)
Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Cancer
392(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Cancer
392(3)
Cancer Treatment
395(7)
13 Cancer Epidemiology
402(40)
Kathryn L. McCance
Genetics, Epigenetics, and Tissue
403(6)
Incidence and Mortality Trends
409(1)
Incidence Trends
409(1)
Mortality Trends
410(1)
In Utero and Early Life Conditions
410(3)
Environmental-Lifestyle Factors
413(1)
Tobacco Use
413(1)
Diet
414(9)
Infection, Sexual and Reproductive Behavior, Human Papillomaviruses
423(1)
Other Viruses and Microorganisms
424(1)
Ionizing Radiation
424(7)
Ultraviolet Radiation
431(1)
Electromagnetic Radiation
431(1)
Chemicals and Occupational Hazards as Carcinogens
432(1)
Air Pollution
433(9)
14 Cancer in Children
442(5)
Nancy E. Kline
Incidence and Types of Cancer
442(1)
Etiology
443(1)
Genetic Factors
444(1)
Environmental Factors
444(1)
Prognosis
445(2)
PART TWO PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC ALTERATIONS: ORGANS AND SYSTEMS
Unit V The Neurologic System
15 Structure and Function of the Neurologic System
447(37)
Richard A. Sugerman
Overview and Organization of the Nervous System
447(1)
Cells of the Nervous System
448(1)
Neurons
448(1)
Neuroglia and Schwann Cells
449(1)
Nerve Injury and Regeneration
450(1)
Nerve Impulse
451(1)
Synapses
451(1)
Neurotransmitters
452(2)
Central Nervous System
454(1)
Brain
454(6)
Spinal Cord
460(3)
Motor Pathways (Tracts)
463(1)
Sensory Pathways
464(1)
Protective Structures
464(3)
Blood Supply
467(2)
Peripheral Nervous System
469(1)
Autonomic Nervous System
470(1)
Anatomy of the Sympathetic Nervous System
470(3)
Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Nervous System
473(4)
Aging and the Nervous System
477(1)
Tests of Nervous System Function
477(1)
Skull and Spine Roentgenograms
477(1)
Computed Tomography
478(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
478(1)
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
478(1)
Positron-Emission Tomography Scan
478(1)
Brain Scan
478(2)
Cerebral Angiography
480(1)
Myelography
480(1)
Echoencephalography (Ultrasound)
480(1)
Electroencephalography
480(1)
Evoked Potentials
480(1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis
480(4)
16 Pain, Temperature Regulation, Sleep, and Sensory Function
484(43)
Sue E. Huether
George Rodway
Curtis DeFriez
Pain
485(1)
Theories of Pain
485(1)
Neuroanatomy of Pain
485(2)
Pain Modulation
487(4)
Clinical Descriptions of Pain
491(4)
Pediatrics and Perception of Pain
495(1)
Aging and Perception of Pain
495(1)
Temperature Regulation
495(1)
Hypothalamic Control of Temperature
496(2)
Pediatrics and Temperature Regulation
498(1)
Aging and Temperature Regulation
498(1)
Pathogenesis of Fever
498(1)
Benefits of Fever
498(2)
Disorders of Temperature Regulation
500(2)
Sleep
502(1)
Non--Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep
502(1)
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
503(1)
Pediatrics and Sleep Patterns
503(1)
Aging and Sleep Patterns
504(1)
Sleep Disorders
504(1)
Sleep Disorders Associated with Mental, Neurologic, or Medical Disorders
505(1)
Somatosensory Function and the Special Senses
506(1)
Touch
506(1)
Proprioception
506(1)
Vision
507(2)
Aging and Vision
509(5)
Hearing
514(1)
Aging and Hearing
515(2)
Olfaction and Taste
517(1)
Aging and Olfaction and Taste
518(9)
17 Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function
527(54)
Barbara J. Boss
Sue E. Huether
Alterations in Cognitive Systems
527(1)
Alterations in Arousal
528(7)
Alterations in Awareness
535(4)
Data Processing Deficits
539(11)
Seizure Disorders
550(5)
Alterations in Cerebral Hemodynamics
555(1)
Increased Intracranial Pressure
555(2)
Cerebral Edema
557(1)
Hydrocephalus
558(1)
Alterations in Neuromotor Function
559(1)
Alterations in Muscle Tone
559(2)
Alterations in Movement
561(12)
Extrapyramidal Motor Syndromes
573(1)
Alterations in Complex Motor Performance
574(7)
18 Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction
581(60)
Barbara J. Boss
Sue E. Huether
Central Nervous System Disorders
581(1)
Traumatic Brain and Spinal Cord Injury
581(13)
Degenerative Disorders of the Spine
594(4)
Cerebrovascular Disorders
598(9)
Headache Syndromes
607(2)
Infection and Inflammation of the Central Nervous System
609(9)
Demyelinating Disorders
618(3)
Peripheral Nervous System and Neuromuscular Junction Disorders
621(1)
Peripheral Nervous System Disorders
621(3)
Neuromuscular Junction Disorders
624(2)
Tumors of the Central Nervous System
626(1)
Cranial Tumors
626(7)
Spinal Cord Tumors
633(8)
19 Neurobiology of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders
641(19)
Lorey K. Takahashi
Schizophrenia
642(1)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
642(2)
Clinical Manifestations
644(2)
Treatment
646(1)
Mood Disorders: Depression and Bipolar Disorder
647(1)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
647(3)
Clinical Manifestations
650(1)
Treatment
651(3)
Anxiety Disorders
654(1)
Panic Disorder
654(1)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
655(1)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
655(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
656(4)
20 Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children
660(29)
Lynne M. Kerr
Sue E. Huether
Structure and Function of the Nervous System in Children
660(1)
Brain Development
661(2)
Structural Malformations
663(1)
Defects of Neural Tube Closure
663(3)
Craniosynostosis
666(1)
Malformations of Cortical Development
667(3)
Alterations in Function: Encephalopathies
670(1)
Static Encephalopathies
670(4)
Acute Encephalopathies
674(3)
Cerebrovascular Disease in Children
677(1)
Perinatal Stroke
677(1)
Childhood Stroke
677(1)
Epilepsy
678(3)
Childhood Tumors
681(1)
Brain Tumors
681(3)
Embryonal Tumors
684(5)
Unit VI The Endocrine System
21 Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation
689(28)
Valentina L. Brashers
Robert E. Jones
Sue E. Huether
Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation
689(1)
Regulation of Hormone Release
690(1)
Hormone Transport
691(1)
Hormone Receptors
691(1)
Plasma Membrane Receptors and Signal Transduction
692(4)
Hormone Effects
696(1)
Structure and Function of the Endocrine Glands
696(1)
Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis
696(4)
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
700(4)
Endocrine Pancreas
704(2)
Adrenal Glands
706(4)
Neuroendocrine Response to Stressors
710(1)
Tests of Endocrine Function
710(1)
Aging and the Endocrine System
711(6)
22 Alterations of Hormonal Regulation
717(51)
Valentina L. Brashers
Robert E. Jones
Sue E. Huether
Mechanisms of Hormonal Alterations
717(1)
Alterations of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary System
718(1)
Diseases of the Posterior Pituitary
718(2)
Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary
720(4)
Alterations of Thyroid Function
724(1)
Hyperthyroidism
725(3)
Hypothyroidism
728(3)
Alterations of Parathyroid Function
731(1)
Hyperparathyroidism
731(2)
Hypoparathyroidism
733(1)
Dysfunction of the Endocrine Pancreas: Diabetes Mellitus
734(1)
Types of Diabetes Mellitus
735(8)
Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
743(3)
Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
746(6)
Alterations of Adrenal Function
752(1)
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
752(6)
Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla
758(10)
Unit VII The Reproductive Systems
23 Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems
768(32)
Gillian Tufts
George Rodway
Sue E. Huether
Angela Deneris
Development of the Reproductive Systems
768(1)
Sexual Differentiation and Hormone Production In Utero
768(2)
Puberty and Reproductive Maturation
770(1)
The Female Reproductive System
771(1)
External Genitalia
771(1)
Internal Genitalia
772(4)
Female Sex Hormones
776(2)
The Menstrual (Ovarian) Cycle
778(4)
Structure and Function of the Breast
782(1)
The Female Breast
782(2)
The Male Breast
784(1)
The Male Reproductive System
784(1)
External Genitalia
784(3)
Internal Genitalia
787(2)
Spermatogenesis
789(1)
Male Sex Hormones
789(2)
Tests of Reproductive Function
791(1)
Aging and Reproductive Function
791(9)
24 Alterations of the Female Reproductive System
800(85)
Julia C. Phillippi
Gwen A. Latendresse
Kathryn L. McCance
Abnormalities of Reproductive Tract Development
800(2)
Alterations of Sexual Maturation
802(1)
Delayed Puberty
802(1)
Precocious Puberty
803(1)
Disorders of the Female Reproductive System
804(1)
Hormonal and Menstrual Alterations
804(9)
Infection and Inflammation
813(4)
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
817(3)
Benign Growths and Proliferative Conditions
820(5)
Cancer
825(9)
Sexual Dysfunction
834(1)
Impaired Fertility
835(1)
Disorders of the Breast
836(1)
Galactorrhea
836(1)
Benign Breast Disease
837(6)
Cancer
843(42)
25 Alterations of the Male Reproductive System
885(33)
George Rodway
Kathryn L. McCance
Alterations of Sexual Maturation
885(1)
Delayed Puberty
886(1)
Precocious Puberty
886(2)
Disorders of the Male Reproductive System
888(1)
Disorders of the Urethra
888(1)
Disorders of the Penis
888(3)
Disorders of the Scrotum, Testis, and Epididymis
891(6)
Disorders of the Prostate Gland
897(14)
Sexual Dysfunction
911(1)
Impairment of Sperm Production and Quality
912(1)
Disorders of the Male Breast
913(1)
Gynecomastia
913(1)
Cancer
914(4)
26 Sexually Transmitted Infections
918(27)
Julia C. Phillippi
Gwen A. Latendresse
Sexually Transmitted Urogenital Infections
919(1)
Bacterial Infections
919(10)
Chlamydial Infections
929(3)
Viral Infections
932(5)
Parasitic Infections
937(3)
Sexually Transmitted Infections of Other Body Systems
940(1)
Hepatitis B Virus
940(1)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
941(4)
Unit VIII The Hematologic System
27 Structure and Function of the Hematologic System
945(37)
Neal S. Rote
Kathryn L. McCance
Components of the Hematologic System
945(1)
Composition of the Blood
945(6)
Lymphoid Organs
951(3)
Development of Blood Cells
954(1)
Hematopoiesis
954(5)
Development of Erythrocytes
959(5)
Development of Leukocytes
964(1)
Development of Platelets
965(1)
Mechanisms of Hemostasis
965(1)
Function of Blood Vessels
965(2)
Function of Platelets
967(2)
Function of Clotting Factors
969(1)
Control of Hemostatic Mechanisms
970(1)
Lysis of Blood Clots
971(2)
Clinical Evaluation of the Hematologic System
973(1)
Tests of Bone Marrow Function
973(2)
Blood Tests
975(1)
Pediatrics and the Hematologic System
975(1)
Aging and the Hematologic System
975(7)
28 Alterations of Erythrocyte Function
982(26)
Neal S. Rote
Kathryn L. McCance
Anemia
982(1)
Classification
982(5)
Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias
987(2)
Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias
989(4)
Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias
993(9)
Myeloproliferative Red Blood Cell Disorders
1002(1)
Polycythemia Vera
1003(1)
Iron Overload
1004(4)
29 Alterations of Leukocyte, Lymphoid, and Hemostatic Function
1008(47)
Anna L. Schwartz
Neal S. Rote
Alterations of Leukocyte Function
1008(1)
Quantitative-Alterations of Leukocytes
1009(2)
Infectious Mononucleosis
1011(2)
Leukemias
1013(10)
Alterations of Lymphoid Function
1023(1)
Lymphadenopathy
1023(1)
Malignant Lymphomas
1023(7)
Plasma Cell Malignancies
1030(6)
Alterations of Splenic Function
1036(1)
Alterations of Platelets and Coagulation
1037(1)
Disorders of Platelets
1037(5)
Disorders of Coagulation
1042(13)
30 Alterations of Hematologic Function in Children
1055(28)
Nancy E. Kline
Fetal and Neonatal Hematopoiesis
1055(1)
Postnatal Changes in the Blood
1056(1)
Erythrocytes
1057(1)
Leukocytes and Platelets
1057(1)
Disorders of Erythrocytes
1058(1)
Acquired Disorders
1058(4)
Inherited Disorders
1062(8)
Disorders of Coagulation and Platelets
1070(1)
Inherited Hemorrhagic Disease
1070(3)
Antibody-Mediated Hemorrhagic Disease
1073(1)
Leukemia and Lymphoma
1074(1)
Leukemia
1074(4)
Lymphomas
1078(5)
Unit IX The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
31 Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
1083(46)
Susanna G. Cunningham
Valentina L. Brashers
Kathryn L. McCance
Circulatory System
1083(2)
The Heart
1085(1)
Structures That Direct Circulation Through the Heart
1085(5)
Structures That Support Cardiac Metabolism: The Coronary Vessels
1090(2)
Structures That Control Heart Action
1092(9)
Factors Affecting Cardiac Output
1101(5)
Systemic Circulation
1106(1)
Structure of Blood Vessels
1106(3)
Factors Affecting Blood Flow
1109(5)
Regulation of Blood Pressure (Arterial Pressure)
1114(3)
Regulation of Coronary Circulation
1117(1)
Lymphatic System
1118(1)
Tests of Cardiovascular Function
1119(1)
Cardiac and Coronary Artery Evaluation
1119(3)
Systemic Vascular Evaluation
1122(1)
Aging and the Cardiovascular System
1123(6)
32 Alterations of Cardiovascular Function
1129(65)
Valentina L. Brashers
Diseases of the Veins
1129(1)
Varicose Veins and Chronic Venous Insufficiency
1129(1)
Deep Venous Thrombosis
1130(1)
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
1131(1)
Diseases of the Arteries
1132(1)
Hypertension
1132(8)
Orthostatic (Postural) Hypotension
1140(1)
Aneurysm
1140(2)
Arterial Thrombus Formation
1142(1)
Embolism
1143(1)
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
1144(1)
Atherosclerosis
1145(3)
Peripheral Artery Disease
1148(1)
Coronary Artery Disease, Myocardial Ischemia, and Acute Coronary Syndromes
1148(15)
Disorders of the Heart Wall
1163(1)
Disorders of the Pericardium
1163(2)
Disorders of the Myocardium: The Cardiomyopathies
1165(2)
Disorders of the Endocardium
1167(8)
Cardiac Complications in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
1175(1)
Manifestations of Heart Disease
1175(1)
Heart Failure
1175(7)
Dysrhythmias
1182(12)
33 Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children
1194(31)
Nancy L. McDaniel
Development of the Cardiovascular System
1194(1)
Developmental Anatomy
1194(2)
Transitional Circulation
1196(2)
Postnatal Development
1198(1)
Congenital Heart Defects
1198(1)
Classification of Congenital Heart Defects and Associated Conditions
1199(3)
Defects Increasing Pulmonary Blood Flow
1202(5)
Defects Decreasing Pulmonary Blood Flow
1207(3)
Obstructive Defects
1210(4)
Mixing Defects
1214(4)
Acquired Cardiovascular Disorders
1218(1)
Kawasaki Disease
1218(1)
Systemic Hypertension
1218(3)
Childhood Obesity
1221(4)
Unit X The Pulmonary System
34 Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System
1225(23)
Valentina L. Brashers
Structures of the Pulmonary System
1225(1)
Conducting Airways
1225(4)
Gas-Exchange Airways
1229(1)
Pulmonary and Bronchial Circulation
1229(2)
Chest Wall and Pleura
1231(1)
Functions of the Pulmonary System
1232(1)
Ventilation
1232(6)
Gas Transport
1238(5)
Tests of Pulmonary Function
1243(1)
Aging and the Pulmonary System
1244(4)
35 Alterations of Pulmonary Function
1248(42)
Valentina L. Brashers
Sue E. Huether
Clinical Manifestations of Pulmonary Alterations
1248(1)
Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Disease
1248(3)
Conditions Caused by Pulmonary Disease or Injury
1251(2)
Disorders of the Chest Wall and Pleura
1253(1)
Disorders of the Chest Wall
1253(1)
Pleural Abnormalities
1254(1)
Pulmonary Disorders
1255(1)
Restrictive Lung Disorders
1255(8)
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
1263(8)
Respiratory Tract Infections
1271(2)
Viral Pneumonia
1273(2)
Pulmonary Vascular Disease
1275(3)
Malignancies of the Respiratory Tract
1278(12)
36 Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children
1290(29)
Valentina L. Brashers
Sue E. Huether
Structure and Function
1290(1)
Upper Airway
1290(1)
Lower Airways and Lung Parenchyma
1290(2)
Chest Wall Dynamics
1292(1)
Metabolic Characteristics
1292(1)
Immunologic Incompetence
1292(1)
Physiologic Control of Respiration
1293(1)
Disorders of the Upper Airways
1293(1)
Upper Airway Obstruction
1293(8)
Disorders of the Lower Airways
1301(1)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the Newborn
1301(2)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
1303(2)
Respiratory Tract Infections
1305(3)
Aspiration Pneumonitis
1308(1)
Bronchiolitis Obliterans
1308(1)
Asthma
1308(2)
Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
1310(1)
Cystic Fibrosis
1310(3)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
1313(6)
Unit XI The Renal and Urologic Systems
37 Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic Systems
1319(21)
Alexa K. Doig
Sue E. Huether
Structures of the Renal System
1319(1)
Structures of the Kidney
1319(6)
Urinary Structures
1325(1)
Renal Blood Flow
1326(1)
Autoregulation of Renal Blood Flow
1326(1)
Neural Regulation
1326(1)
Hormones and Other Factors
1327(1)
Kidney Function
1327(1)
Nephron Function
1327(4)
Concentration and Dilution of Urine
1331(2)
Renal Hormones
1333(1)
Tests of Renal Function
1334(1)
The Concept of Clearance
1334(1)
Blood Tests
1335(1)
Urinalysis
1335(1)
Aging and Renal Function
1336(4)
38 Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function
1340(36)
Alexa K. Doig
Sue E. Huether
Urinary Tract Obstruction
1340(1)
Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction
1340(4)
Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction
1344(3)
Tumors
1347(2)
Urinary Tract Infection
1349(1)
Causes of Urinary Tract Infection
1349(1)
Types of Urinary Tract Infection
1350(2)
Glomerular Disorders
1352(1)
Glomerulonephritis
1352(6)
Nephrotic and Nephritic Syndromes
1358(1)
Acute Kidney Injury
1359(1)
Classification of Kidney Dysfunction
1359(1)
Acute Kidney Injury
1360(4)
Chronic Kidney Disease
1364(2)
Creatinine and Urea Clearance
1366(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
1367(1)
Calcium, Phosphate, and Bone
1368(8)
39 Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children
1376(17)
Patti Ring
Sue E. Huether
Structure and Function of the Urinary System in Children
1376(1)
Development of the Urinary System
1376(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Children
1377(1)
Alterations in Renal and Bladder Function in Children
1378(1)
Congenital Abnormalities
1378(3)
Glomerular Disorders
1381(4)
Kidney Injury
1385(1)
Wilms Tumor
1385(1)
Bladder Disorders
1386(2)
Urinary Incontinence
1388(5)
Unit XII The Digestive System
40 Structure and Function of the Digestive System
1393(30)
Alexa K. Doig
Sue E. Huether
The Gastrointestinal Tract
1393(2)
Mouth and Esophagus
1395(1)
Stomach
1396(4)
Small Intestine
1400(7)
Large Intestine
1407(1)
Intestinal Bacteria
1408(1)
Accessory Organs of Digestion
1409(1)
Liver
1409(4)
Gallbladder
1413(1)
Exocrine Pancreas
1413(2)
Tests of Digestive Function
1415(1)
Gastrointestinal Tract
1415(1)
Liver
1416(1)
Gallbladder
1416(1)
Exocrine Pancreas
1416(1)
Aging and the Gastrointestinal System
1417(6)
41 Alterations of Digestive Function
1423(63)
Alexa K. Doig
Sue E. Huether
Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract
1423(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction
1423(5)
Disorders of Motility
1428(6)
Gastritis
1434(1)
Peptic Ulcer Disease
1435(4)
Malabsorption Syndromes
1439(1)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
1440(6)
Intestinal Vascular Insufficiency
1446(1)
Disorders of Nutrition
1446(5)
Disorders of the Accessory Organs of Digestion
1451(1)
Common Complications of Liver Disorders
1451(6)
Disorders of the Liver
1457(6)
Disorders of the Gallbladder
1463(1)
Disorders of the Pancreas
1464(2)
Cancer of the Digestive System
1466(1)
Cancer of the Gastrointestinal Tract
1466(6)
Cancer of the Accessory Organs of Digestion
1472(14)
42 Alterations of Digestive Function in Children
1486(24)
Sue E. Huether
Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract
1486(1)
Congenital Impairment of Motility
1486(1)
Esophageal Malformations
1487(5)
Acquired Impairment of Motility
1492(2)
Impairment of Digestion, Absorption, and Nutrition
1494(5)
Diarrhea
1499(1)
Disorders of the liver
1500(1)
Disorders of Biliary Metabolism and Transport
1500(2)
Inflammatory Disorders
1502(1)
Portal Hypertension
1502(1)
Metabolic Disorders
1503(7)
Unit XIII The Musculoskeletal System
43 Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System
1510(30)
Christy L. Crowther-Radulewicz
Structure and Function of Bones
1510(1)
Elements of Bone Tissue
1511(6)
Types of Bone Tissue
1517(1)
Characteristics of Bone
1517(2)
Maintenance of Bone Integrity
1519(1)
Structure and Function of Joints
1520(1)
Fibrous Joints
1520(1)
Cartilaginous Joints
1520(2)
Synovial Joints
1522(4)
Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscles
1526(1)
Whole Muscle
1527(6)
Components of Muscle Function
1533(2)
Tests of Musculoskeletal Function
1535(1)
Tests of Bone Function
1535(1)
Tests of Joint Function
1535(1)
Tests of Muscular Function
1535(1)
Aging and The Musculoskeletal System
1536(4)
44 Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function
1540(51)
Christy L. Crowther-Radulewicz
Kathryn L. McCance
Musculoskeletal Injuries
1540(1)
Skeletal Trauma
1540(5)
Support Structure Trauma
1545(5)
Disorders of Bones
1550(1)
Metabolic Bone Diseases
1550(8)
Infectious Bone Disease: Osteomyelitis
1558(2)
Bone Tumors
1560(5)
Disorders of Joints
1565(1)
Osteoarthritis
1565(3)
Classic Inflammatory Joint Disease
1568(10)
Disorders of Skeletal Muscle
1578(1)
Secondary Muscular Dysfunction
1578(3)
Muscle Membrane Abnormalities
1581(1)
Metabolic Muscle Diseases
1582(1)
Inflammatory Muscle Diseases: Myositis
1583(2)
Myopathy
1585(1)
Muscle Tumors
1585(6)
45 Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children
1591(25)
Kristen Lee Carroll
Lynn M. Kerr
Musculoskeletal Development in Children
1591(1)
Bone Formation
1591(1)
Bone Growth
1592(1)
Skeletal Development
1593(1)
Muscle Growth
1593(1)
Musculoskeletal Alterations in Children
1593(1)
Congenital Defects
1593(4)
Abnormal Density or Modeling of the Skeleton
1597(4)
Bone Infection: Osteomyelitis
1601(2)
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
1603(1)
Avascular Diseases of the Bone: Osteochondrosis
1604(2)
Cerebral Palsy
1606(1)
Muscular Dystrophy
1606(3)
Musculoskeletal Tumors in Children
1609(3)
Nonaccidental Trauma
1612(4)
Unit XIV The Integumentary System
46 Structure, Function, and Disorders of the Integument
1616(37)
Sue Ann McCann
Sue E. Huether
Structure and Function of the Skin
1616(1)
Layers of the Skin
1616(2)
Subcutaneous Layer
1618(1)
Aging and Skin Integrity
1619(1)
Tests of Skin Function
1619(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Skin Dysfunction
1619(8)
Disorders of the Skin
1627(1)
Inflammatory Disorders
1627(2)
Papulosquamous Disorders
1629(3)
Vesiculobullous Disorders
1632(2)
Infections
1634(4)
Vascular Disorders
1638(2)
Tick Bites
1640(1)
Benign Tumors
1640(1)
Skin Cancer
1641(5)
Cold Injury
1646(1)
Disorders of the Hair
1646(1)
Alopecia
1646(1)
Hirsutism
1647(1)
Disorders of the Nail
1647(1)
Paronychia
1647(1)
Onychomycosis
1647(6)
47 Alterations of the Integument in Children
1653(15)
Noreen Heer Nicol
Sue E. Huether
Acne Vulgaris
1653(1)
Dermatitis
1654(1)
Atopic Dermatitis
1654(1)
Diaper Dermatitis
1655(1)
Infections of the Skin
1656(1)
Bacterial Infections
1656(1)
Fungal Infections
1657(1)
Viral Infections
1658(3)
Insect Bites and Parasites
1661(1)
Scabies
1661(1)
Pediculosis (Lice Infestation)
1661(1)
Fleas
1662(1)
Bedbugs
1662(1)
Hemangiomas and Cutaneous Vascular Malformations
1662(1)
Hemangiomas
1662(1)
Vascular Malformations
1663(1)
Other Skin Disorders
1664(1)
Miliaria
1664(1)
Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum
1664(1)
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
1664(4)
Unit XV Multiple Interacting Systems
48 Shock, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Burns in Adults
1668(31)
Linda L. Martin
Dennis J. Cheek
Stephen E. Morris
Shock
1668(1)
Cellular Alterations and Impairment of Cellular Metabolism
1669(2)
Types of Shock, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment
1671(8)
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
1679(6)
Burns
1685(1)
Epidemiology and Etiology
1685(1)
Burn Wound Depth
1685(14)
49 Shock, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Burns in Children
1699
Mary Fran Hazinski
Mary A. Mondozzi
Rose A. Urdiales Bakes
Shock and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
1699(1)
Types of Shock
1700(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Shock
1700(10)
Reperfusion and Inflammatory Injury
1710(1)
Evaluation and Treatment of Shock
1710(5)
Burns
1715(1)
Severity of Injury
1716