Social Cognition: How Individuals Construct Social Reality 2nd New edition [Minkštas viršelis]

(University of Basel, Switzerland), ,
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 258 pages, aukštis x plotis: 248x171 mm, weight: 499 g
  • Serija: Social Psychology: A Modular Course
  • Išleidimo metai: 14-Sep-2017
  • Leidėjas: Psychology Press Ltd
  • ISBN-10: 1138124451
  • ISBN-13: 9781138124455
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
  • Formatas: Paperback / softback, 258 pages, aukštis x plotis: 248x171 mm, weight: 499 g
  • Serija: Social Psychology: A Modular Course
  • Išleidimo metai: 14-Sep-2017
  • Leidėjas: Psychology Press Ltd
  • ISBN-10: 1138124451
  • ISBN-13: 9781138124455
Kitos knygos pagal šią temą:
Social cognition is a key area of social psychology, which focuses on cognitive processes that are involved when individuals make sense of, and navigate in their social world. For instance, individuals need to understand what they perceive, they learn and recall information from memory, they form judgments and decisions, they communicate with others, and they regulate their behavior. While all of these topics are also key to other fields of psychological research, it's the social world-which is dynamic, complex, and often ambiguous-that creates particular demands. This accessible book introduces the basic themes within social cognition and asks questions such as: How do individuals think and feel about themselves and others? How do they make sense of their social environment? How do they interact with others in their social world? The book is organized along an idealized sequence of social information processing that starts at perceiving and encoding, and moves on to learning, judging, and communicating. It covers not only processes internal to the individual, but also facets of the environment that constrain cognitive processing. Throughout the book, student learning is fostered with examples, additional materials, and discussion questions. With its subdivision in ten chapters, the book is suitable both for self-study and as companion material for those teaching a semester-long course. This is the ideal comprehensive introduction to this thriving and captivating field of research for students of psychology.

Recenzijos

"It is terrific to see a Second Edition of this marvelous book. It is a superb review of the literature and a remarkable synthesis of a complex and important area of research. The authors are gifted researchers in the area; they know the relevant work thoroughly; and their perspective throughout is unique and tremendously insightful." -Charles M. Judd, College Professor of Distinction, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado "Social cognition is emerging as the hub of many areas of scholarship in the neurological, behavioral, and social sciences. This timely book presents a remarkably comprehensive and integrative review of the important lessons learned over the last few decades from theory, methods, and research findings in social cognition. The authors, world-renowned social cognition scholars, convey the rich tapestry of social cognitive phenomena as well as shed light on the underlying basic mechanisms. The authors unravel for us the mysteries of the social mind and help us understand why sociality and cognition are inextricably interwoven. I strongly recommend this authoritative book as a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, as well as researchers and practitioners in the behavioral and social sciences." - Yaacov Trope, Professor of Psychology, New York University "This volume, written by some of Germany's leading social psychologists, provides a invaluable overview of the field of Social Cognition. It is a great book about an endlessly fascinating topic, and it is indispensible for anyone who wants to understand how we perceive and interact with our social world." -Ap Dijksterhuis, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands "Congratulations to the authors! This is an excellent introduction to core principles of social cognition. It illuminates how people make sense of the world in which they live and presents key findings and theories in an involving and easily accessible way. The book will be highly appreciated by students and instructors." - Norbert Schwarz, University of Southern California

List of illustrations xii
Acknowledgments xvii
1 Introduction: what is social cognition research about? 1(15)
Making sense: constructing social reality
1(2)
Different perspectives on the social thinker
3(3)
Consistency seekers
3(1)
Naive scientists
4(1)
Cognitive misers
5(1)
Motivated tacticians
5(1)
Activated actors
6(1)
The cognitive component of social cognition
6(2)
What is social about social cognition?
8(5)
Nature of the stimulus
9(2)
Nature of the processing
11(2)
Overview: the structure of this book
13(1)
Chapter summary
14(1)
Discussion questions/topics
14(1)
Recommendations for further reading
15(1)
2 General framework of social cognitive processing 16(21)
Three main ingredients
16(3)
i Input from the given situation
16(1)
ii Input in the form of prior knowledge
17(1)
iii Processes that operate on the input
18(1)
General themes underlying the construction of social reality
19(6)
Theme 1: the limitation of human processing capacity and the allocation of processing resources
19(3)
Theme 2: top-down and bottom-up processing
22(2)
Theme 3: automatic and controlled processes
24(1)
The sequence of information processing
25(10)
Perception and attention
26(3)
Encoding and interpretation
29(1)
Storage and retrieval
30(2)
Further processes, inferences, judgments, and decisions
32(2)
The selection of a behavioral response
34(1)
Coda
35(1)
Chapter summary
35(1)
Discussion questions/topics
36(1)
Recommendations for further reading
36(1)
3 Perceiving and encoding 37(16)
Relating new information to prior knowledge
37(3)
Conditions that increase and decrease the influence of accessibility on encoding
40(1)
What knowledge can be primed?
41(4)
Selective examples of priming knowledge
41(2)
Media priming of aggressive behavior
43(1)
Priming cooperation versus competition
44(1)
General background variables of perceiving and encoding
45(5)
Extent of processing
45(1)
Psychological distance
46(3)
Culture
49(1)
Concluding remarks
50(1)
Chapter summary
51(1)
Discussion questions/topics
51(1)
Recommendations far further reading
51(2)
4 Storing and retrieving information 53(29)
How is information organized in memory?
53(8)
Types of knowledge structures and their representation
54(5)
Cognitive consistency
59(1)
Who said what?
60(1)
Evaluative conditioning
60(1)
Associative networks
61(1)
How is information retrieved?
61(1)
Retrieval cues
61(1)
Prospective memory
62(1)
A primer of priming research
62(8)
Semantic priming
64(1)
Action priming
65(2)
Categorical priming
67(1)
Evaluative priming
68(2)
Using implicit social cognition for diagnostic purposes
70(5)
Evaluative priming
71(1)
Affect misattribution procedure
71(1)
Implicit Association Test
71(2)
Critical note on automaticity
73(2)
Self-generated and knowledge-inherent retrieval cues
75(2)
Part-list cueing
75(1)
The Self as a powerful knowledge structure
76(1)
Interplay of old knowledge and new information
77(1)
A place for inconsistent information
78(2)
Chapter summary
80(1)
Discussion questions/topics
81(1)
Recommendations for further reading
81(1)
5 Using information: controlled and automatic processing of information 82(23)
Using what is on your mind
83(1)
Whether and how to use what is on your mind
84(9)
The inclusion/exclusion model of social judgment
86(7)
Motivational determinants of information use
93(3)
Using information and the role of processing intensity
93(2)
Using information that serves us well
95(1)
Automatic judgments
96(7)
Awareness
97(1)
Intentionality
98(2)
Controllability
100(1)
Efficiency
101(1)
Automatic judgments and accuracy
101(1)
Outlook
102(1)
Concluding remarks
103(1)
Chapter summary
103(1)
Discussion questions/topics
104(1)
Recommendations for further reading
104(1)
6 Using information: judgmental shortcuts 105(21)
What are judgmental heuristics?
105(1)
Three general rules of thumb: availability, representativeness, and anchoring
106(15)
Availability heuristic
106(6)
Representativeness heuristic
112(4)
Anchoring and adjustment
116(4)
Alternative explanations and further developments
120(1)
Content-specific rules of thumb
121(2)
Heuristics: blessing or curse?
123(1)
Chapter summary
124(1)
Discussion questions/topics
125(1)
Recommendations for further reading
125(1)
7 The interplay of cognition and feelings: mood states 126(19)
Introduction: feelings in social cognition
126(1)
Mood states and their impact on social cognitive processing
127(1)
Mood and memory
128(2)
Mood and evaluative judgments
130(5)
Mood and processing style
135(7)
Mood and person perception
136(2)
Mood and persuasion
138(1)
Mood and other heuristics
139(1)
Mood and level of abstraction
140(1)
Explaining mood effects on processing style
140(2)
Conclusion
142(1)
Chapter summary
143(1)
Discussion questions/topics
143(1)
Recommendations for further reading
144(1)
8 The interplay of cognition and feelings: fluency 145(20)
Fluency: a cognitive feeling
145(3)
Many sources, one unitary fluency experience
147(1)
Always there, but not always aware
147(1)
Fluency experiences are variable
147(1)
Fluency is an efficient piece of information
148(1)
Fluency in judgment
148(13)
Selective examples of fluency's impact
148(9)
Processes underlying fluency's impact on judgment
157(3)
Variables that moderate fluency's impact on judgment
160(1)
Fluency and processing style
161(2)
Conclusion
163(1)
Chapter summary
163(1)
Discussion questions/topics
164(1)
Recommendations for further reading
164(1)
9 Communicating information 165(26)
Social information processing across individuals: an epitome of truly social cognition
166(15)
Communicability as a source of stereotyping
166(2)
Shared information advantage
168(4)
Cooperative communication and logic of conversation
172(5)
Communication pragmatics and social influence
177(4)
The power of lexical stimuli
181(8)
Diagnosticity and confirmability
181(1)
Linguistic abstractness
182(7)
Chapter summary
189(1)
Discussion questions/topics
190(1)
Recommendations for further reading
190(1)
10 How the environment constrains social cognitive processing 191(20)
Social hypothesis testing: updating knowledge in the light of environmental data
191(2)
Confirmation bias
192(1)
Motivational versus environmental origins of confirmation bias
192(1)
Analyzing the environmental input to social cognition
193(10)
Self-generated data: the information-search paradigm
194(3)
Self-produced data: self-fulfilling prophecies
197(2)
Externally constrained data: environmental learning processes
199(4)
Opportunity to learn in the environment
203(3)
Illusory correlations against minorities
203(1)
Illusory correlations more generally
204(1)
Self-serving biases
204(2)
The adaptive value of environmental constraints on social cognition
206(3)
The amazing accuracy of judgments based on minimal information
206(1)
Environmental base rates
206(2)
Impact of facial appearance
208(1)
Conclusion
209(1)
Chapter summary
209(1)
Discussion questions/topics
210(1)
Recommendations for further reading
210(1)
Glossary 211(6)
References 217(37)
Author index 254(3)
Subject index 257
Rainer Greifeneder is professor of Social Psychology at the University of Basel, Switzerland. His research focuses on various aspects of social cognition, such as the experienced ease or difficulty of thinking, and social exclusion. Herbert Bless is professor of Microsociology and Social Psychology at the University of Mannheim, Germany. His research addresses the construction of social judgment and the interplay of affect and cognition. Klaus Fiedler is professor of Social Psychology at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. His research interests include judgment and decision making, social cognition, language and communication, behavior regulation, and methodological issues in behavioral science.